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LETTER TO REDDIT CEO

2020.09.24 06:28 memesandcommunism LETTER TO REDDIT CEO

Open Letter to Steve Huffman and the Board of Directors of Reddit, Inc– If you believe in standing up to hate and supporting black lives, you need to act
Open Letter to Steve Huffman and the Board of Directors of Reddit, Inc – If you believe in standing up to hate and supporting black lives, you need to act
Dear Steve,
On June 1, you shared a letter on Reddit’s blog “Remember the Human – Black Lives Matter”. In this letter, you claim “as Snoos, we do not tolerate hate, racism, and violence, and while we have work to do to fight these on our platform, our values are clear.”
As of today, neither you nor any other Reddit admins have shared this letter anywhere on reddit.com. However, the response to this message was swift on Twitter, where you were rightfully labeled as hypocritical based on your long and well-recorded history of defending racism and white supremacy on this site.
Among the many responses was this message from former CEO of Reddit, Ellen Pao.
I am obligated to call you out: You should have shut down the_donald instead of amplifying it and its hate, racism, and violence. So much of what is happening now lies at your feet. You don't get to say BLM when reddit nurtures and monetizes white supremacy and hate all day long
Many others shared links and screenshots of your past statements saying “Open racism and slurs are fine to post on Reddit”.
The problem of Reddit’s leadership supporting and providing a platform for racist users and hateful communities has long been an issue. Nearly six years ago, dozens of subreddits signed the original open letter to the Reddit admins calling for action. While the Reddit admins acknowledged the letter and said it was a high priority to address this issue, extremely little has been done in the intervening years.
On June 5, you shared this update on /Announcements, Upcoming changes to our content policy, our board, and where we’re going from here. In the post, you stated that there is a need for continued adjustments of Reddit’s content policy to address racism and that this remains a priority. These continued statements that you hear us, that this is a priority, or that you are working on it are not enough. It has been five years since your return as CEO and this still remains Reddit’s most glaring problem.
Steve, if you and Reddit genuinely care about the values of standing up to racism and hate, then you need to back it up with real action. As moderators on this website who have dedicated countless hours to keeping this site running, we call on Reddit to take the following steps:
At /AgainstHateSubreddits, we have laid out the many failures of Steve time and again to stand up to white supremacy on this site time and time and time again.
With a website with the impact of Reddit on the broader conversations being held in communities around the world, this website needs real leadership and real action.
We hope that Reddit will not just share empty platitudes — but will take a meaningful stand against hate, and take these recommendations to heart.
This letter is co-signed by more than 200 300 350 430 550 650 800 communities representing well over 200 hundreds of millions of subscribers:
If your subreddit is not listed and would like to sign on, please leave a comment below
/AgainstHateSubreddits
/2cb/
/2mad4madlads
/3dsFCswap
/9M9H9E9/
/ABCDesis
/AbsoluteUnits
/AbyssRium/
/AccidentalBoobGrazes/
/AccidentalComedy
/AceAttorneyCirclejerk/
/ACNHGardening
/AfricanAmerican
/androiddev
/animalsbeingbros
/ANormalDayInAmerica/
/anormaldayinrussia
/AntifascistsofReddit/
/antifastonetoss
/arizona/
/arrow
/ArrowAndTheCanaries
/Art
/AsABlackMan
/Asexual/
/askaustin
/AskBibleScholars/
/AskHistorians
/AskMen
/AskMenOver30
/askphilosophy
/AskPhotography
/Asktransgender
/AskWomen
/askwomenadvice
/asoiaf
/atheism
/autism
/awwducational
/babybigcatgifs
/badUIbattles
/BAMEVoicesUK
/BatwomanTV
/BDS
/Beautevil/
/beautyguruchatter
/BestOfReports
/BethMidrash/
/BiggerThanYouThought
/biggerthenyouthought/
/BikiniBottomTwitter
/blackhair
/blackladies
/blacklesbians/
/BlackLightning
/blacklivesmatter
/blackmagicfuckery
/BlackPeopleGifs
/BlackPeopleTwitter
/Blerds
/bodegaboys
/books
/bootlegtoys/
/boottoobig/
/bostontrees
/brakebills
/BritishAirways
/brownbeauty
/BrownPeopleGifs
/BudgetExotics
/buycanadian
/California
/CallMeKevin
/cat
/catan
/CatInTheHatMemes
/Catslaps
/catswithdogs
/Charlotte
/cheese
/chicago
/Chonkers
/chvrches
/civbattleroyale/
/CK2GameOfthrones
/CocosClassics
/coldshowers
/ComedyBuddhism/
/Contrapoints
/copyright
/CoreCyberpunk/
/Corvids
/coys
/CPTSDmemes/
/CreateA/
/creepypms
/CrewsCrew
/cringe
/cringepics
/CritterFacts
/CrowBro
/Crystals/
/curlyhair
/cursedpipes
/Dachschaden
/dankmemes
/DarkJokes
/dataisbeautiful
/dating
/DatingHell/
/DCTV
/deals/
/DebateAVegan
/deerhunter
/democrats
/DenverProtests/
/DescriptionPlease
/didntknowiwantedthat
/digital_manipulation
/dixiequeer
/DIY
/DnDGreentext
/docproduction
/DogeMine
/DragRace_Canada
/DrawForMe/
/DynastyCW
/eagles
/elliegoulding
/EmulationOnAndroid
/entitledkids
/entitledparents
/entitledparentsmemes
/entitledpeople
/espressobin
/euphoria
/explainlikeimdog
/eyebleach
/facepalm
/fakealbumcovers
/Fantasy
/FastFood
/fatlogic
/Feminism
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/feminisms
/femmesofdesoto
/FemmeThoughts
/Fitness
/fixtagram
/FlashTV
/Florida
/FloridaMan
/Food
/formula1
/fosterit
/foundthemobileuse
/FragileMaleRedditor
/FragileWhiteRedditor
/freecompliments
/FriendsofthePod
/ftm/
/FuckTheAltright
/gallifrey
/GamerGhazi/
/gaming
/gaming4gamers
/Gamingcirclejerk
/gaminggifs
/garlicbreadmemes
/gatekeeping
/GatekeepingYuri/
/gay
/geckos/
/GenderCynical/
/genderfluid_irl
/Girlsmirin
/GODZILLA
/goodseals
/GreenAndPleasant
/Gryffindor
/guitarlessons
/Gunners
/GunsAreCool
/Hair
/happy
/happycowgifs
/harrypotte
/Hasan_Pike
/Hindi/
/HipHopHeads
/hisdarkmaterials
/HisDarkMaterialsHBO
/HistamineIntolerance/
/HistoricalJesus/
/hitboxporn
/hockey
/HoldMyNip
/House
/Hufflepuff
/humansbeingbros
/humor
/iamatotalpieceofshit
/idontworkherelady
/im14andthisisdeep
/indianmuslims
/industrialengineering/
/insanepeoplefacebook
/instantkarma
/InternationalDev
/intersex
/ios13beta/
/IRLEasterEggs/
/isitbullshit
/jewellerymaking
/joebiden
/JohnCena/
/JUSTNOMIL
/JustNoSO
/Kashmiri
/KerbalSpaceProgram/
/KingkillerChronicle/
/kittens
/kpop
/kpoprants
/kpopthoughts
/LandlordLove
/leagueofmemes
/LeopardsAteMyFace
/Letterkenny
/LGBT
/LGBTnews
/LibDemMemes/
/librandu
/lifehacks
/LifeProTips
/London
/LosAngeles
/loseit/
/Louisville
/mademesmile
/madlads
/MakeMeSuffe
/MakeMoatsGreatAgain
/makeupaddiction
/malefashion
/malefashionadvice
/MarchAgainstNazis
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/marijuanaconcentrates
/MarkMyWords
/marvelsavengerproject
/mcdonalds
/MeditationPractice
/mediumformat/
/Menslib
/menwritingwomen
/mfa_irl
/mfacirclejerk
/Miami
/Michael
/Military
/mimirecipes
/minipainting/
/Minneapolis
/Minnesota
/MirrorForSale
/mississippi
/MLS
/ModelUSGov/
/MonstaX
/MUA3
/muacjdiscussion/
/Music
/MuslimMarriage
/NASCAR
/naturalhair
/NewOrleans
/NewPatriotism
/News
/Nextfuckinglevel
/NFL
/nicegirls
/NikeSB
/nj4nj
/NJmeetup
/NJr4r
/NMS_Zoology
/noburp
/NomSaying
/nonbinary
/nonmonogamy
/Nottheonion
/Nr2003
/nsfw_gifs
/NYCFC/
/NYCtrees
/Obama
/OCPoetry/
/OCPoetryCirclejerk/
/oddlymesmerizing
/Oddlyterrifying
/offmychest
/Offroad/
/OKState/
/Omaha
/OnGuardForThee
/orcas
/orlando
/Overseas_Pakistani
/PaidForWinRAR
/PanPorn
/paofacts
/partyparrot
/peoplefuckingdying
/Pete_Buttigieg/
/Phillylist
/philosophy
/phoenix/
/PlayingGuitar
/PledgeToImpeach
/PlusSizeFashion
/Poetry/
/poetry_critics
/popheads
/powerlifting
/pregnant
/progressive_islam
/progresspics/
/punchablefaces
/pupliftingnews
/queers
/racism
/rage
/rant
/rape
/rarepuppers
/ravenclaw
/ravens/
/RebelGalaxyOutlaw
/relationships
/relationship_advice
/rigtours/
/RoastMe
/roosterteeth/
/RPDR_UK
/ryangosling/
/rupaulsdragrace
/SandersForPresident
/ScienceFacts
/sciencegifs
/sciences
/Screenwriting
/self
/selfies
/sexpositive
/ShitRedditSays
/ShittyLifeProTips
/shittymoviedetails
/shouldercats
/Showerthoughts
/silhouWHAT
/skitswedditsager
/skyrimmods/
/skyrimvr
/slytherin
/soccer
/socialjustice
/software
/Solocampingandhiking
/spaghetti/
/SPLCenter
/SpoiledDragRace
/spotify/
/squaredcircle
/StargirlTV
/StayingAtHome
/streetwear
/Strongman
/supergirlTV
/SupermanAndLois
/survivor
/svihs/
/tangsoodo
/TerfsWritingTrans
/thanosdidnothingwrong
/thathappened
/thatsabooklight
/thatsthejoke
/TheArtifice
/theocho
/Tim
/timecrisis/
/ToiletPaperUSA
/traaaaaaannnnnnnnnns/
/trans
/TranscribersOfReddit
/transgender
/transgenderteens
/transpositive
/transspace
/transtimelines
/trashy
/TwinCities
/TwoXChromosomes
/Unexpected
/unitedkingdom
/unpopularkpopopinions
/unsentletters
/vaxxhappened
/vegancirclejerk
/VeganDE
/videos
/Volumeeating/
/voteBLUE
/voteDEM
/watchandlearn
/wearethemusicmakers
/weddingplanning/
/weightroom
/WeirdLit
/whiskey
/whitepeoplegifs
/wholesomeBPT
/wholesomecomics
/wholesomehaiku
/WitchesVsPatriarchy
/wnba
/women
/womenshealth
/WorldNews
/WWE/
/YesFap
/Yiddish/
/turtlefacts
Added as of 6:30 PM US Eastern, June 8, 2020
/EarthPorn
/assholedesign/
/DevUnion/
/ADHD/
/Swimming/
/OpenWaterSwimming/
/onionheadlines/
/dangerousdesign/
/behindthegifs/
/chelseafc/
/ITZY/
/straykids/
/red_velvet/
/GeschichtsMaimais/
/neoliberal/
/TrueCrime/
/TrueCrimeDiscussion/
/UnresolvedMysteries/
/serialkillers/
/DelphiMurders/
/RedditCrimeCommunity/
/nonmurdermysteries/
/mystery/
/FoxFiction/
/RepublicanValues/
/nasa/
/Breadit/
/HoustonF1/
/FairytaleasFuck/
/Instagramreality/
/Botchedsurgeries/
/Portland/
/freefolk/
/cheapguitarporn/
/Babylon5Gifs/
/Hijabis/
/Squidbillies/
/coronavirusAL/
/Aquariums/
/shittyaquariums/
/AquaSwap/
/Goldfish/
/Koi/
/AquariumMemes/
/MonsterFishKeepers/
/AquariumsTestSub/
/KnifeFish
/fishshaming/
/Awwquariums/
/Koi_Keepers/
/Bichirs/
/ContagiousLaughte
/AnarchoWave/
/Lima_Peru/
/Spiderman/
/MakingaMurdere
/TheQuibble
/Hogwarts
/ImSorryScout/
/UtahJazz/
/PublicFreakout/
/peloton/
/AmateurRoomPorn/
/RimWorldPorn/
/carolinekonstna
/breathwork/
/saltlakemetro/
/service_dogs/
/service_dogsofReddit/
/ShingekiNoKyojin/
/sounddesign/
/PromoteYourMusic/
/SpotifyPlaylists/
/musicproduction/
/WrestleWithThePackage/
/Austin/
/alcohol/
/RedditsMuseumofFilth/
/chickflixxx/
/Stellaris
/eu4
/paradoxplaza
/victoria2
/Imperator
/KillerQueen/
/TyrannyGame
/saltierthancrait
/kawoshin/
/SapphoAndHerFriend/
/falcons/
/anime_titties/
As of 1:00 PM US Eastern, June 9, 2020
/Jokes/
/skyrim/
/2meirl4meirl/
/MildlyVandalised/
/HolUp/
/Wreddit/
/SCJerk/
/cannabis/
/hearing/
/German/
/lfg/
/dndnext/
/BaldursGate3/
/SampleSize/
/FireEmblemHeroes/
/fireemblem/
/Splintercell/
/RadicalChristianity/
/RussiaLago/
/WormMemes/
/MHOC/
/GroupMovies/
/littlebritishcars/
/Iamnotracistbut/
/ClassicBabes/
/filk/
/ainbow/
/genderquee
/bisexual/
/PuppySmiles/
/lyftdrivers/
/beigeonly/
/Smithtown/
/boyslove/
/heat/
/Detroit/
/BodyAcceptance/
/ConspiracyII/
/ImpactWrestling/
/Splatoon_2/
/ARMS/
/Snek/
/Mario/
/casualnintendo/
/nintendo/
/cleanagers/
/TheMorningShow/
/borns/
/gwent/
/sleepnomore/
/Philippines/
/OneTrueGary/
/circlebroke2/
/circlebroke/
/SRDBroke/
/kflay/
/Musicthemetime/
/HouseChickens/
/poledancing/
/csharp/
/ESL_Teachers/
/GayTeensVerified
/PrincessesOfPowe
/collared/
/knitting/
/Adoption/
/Delaware/
/productivity/
/NewYorkIslanders/
/sewing/
/BlatantMisogyny/
/mendrawingwomen/
/legosaga/
/thewalkingdead/
/MuslimLounge/
/StressFreeSeason/
/ladybonersgonemild/
/wow/
/worldofpvp/
/Blizzard/
/woweconomy/
/ControlProblem/
/Cinemagraphs/
/angula
/Python/
/americandad/
/Anarchism/
/badeconomics/
/budtenders/
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/mbti/
/mtf
/cdramas/
/nyjets/
/pureasoiaf/
/testoviron/
/spicypillows/
/Denve
/StarWarsCantina/
Update as of 1:30 PM US Eastern 6/8/2020
/science
/505Nerds/
/acturnips/
/ACTrade/
/ACVillage
/ACQ
/HogwartsWerewolves/
/AskEconomics/
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/egg_irl/
/blaulicht/
/AFD/
/Weltraum/
/Stormlight_Archive/
/brandonsanderson/
/Cosmere/
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/Judaism/
/DebateAnAtheist/
/FantasyPL/
/ASOUE/
/socialskills/
/Snowblowers/
/arabs/
/WormFanfic/
/cauldron/
/Barca/
/PeterExplainsTheJoke/
/carscirclejerk/
/begonias/
/antidiet/
/ultrachrist/
/thenewcoldwa
/PresidentialRaceMemes/
/NoahGundersen/
/bassnecta
/ColoradoAvalanche/
/LetsNotMeet/
/tattoo/
/MinusTheBea
/kansascity/
/FoodDiaries/
/belgium/
/belgiumgonewild/
/ik_ihe/
added as of 5:30 PM US Eastern June 9, 2020
/india
/AprilKnights
/dobro
/Ireland
/ptsd
/happyrelationships
/Utilitarianism
/wec
/USCR
/forza/
/portishead/
/azerbaijan
/talkingheads
/Umphreys
/ColdCaseUK
/ActiveMeasures
/skyrimrequiem
/freefolk
/Equestrian
/islam
/ColCraftOfficial/
/ElderGuardianRights/
/GenZ/
Added 10:00 AM US EDT 6/10/20
/BotanicalPorn
/WaterPorn
/SeaPorn
/SkyPorn
/FirePorn
/DesertPorn
/WinterPorn
/AutumnPorn
/WeatherPorn
/GeologyPorn
/SpacePorn
/BeachPorn
/MushroomPorn
/SpringPorn
/SummerPorn
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/ArchitecturePorn
/HousePorn
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/ChurchPorn
/AbandonedPorn
/CemeteryPorn
/InfrastructurePorn
/MachinePorn
/CarPorn
/F1Porn
/MotorcyclePorn
/MilitaryPorn
/GunPorn
/KnifePorn
/BoatPorn
/RidesPorn
/DestructionPorn
/ThingsCutInHalfPorn
/StarshipPorn
/ToolPorn
/TechnologyPorn
/BridgePorn
/SteamPorn
/RetailPorn
/SpaceFlightPorn
/roadporn
/drydockporn
/AnimalPorn
/HumanPorn
/EarthlingPorn
/AdrenalinePorn
/ClimbingPorn
/SportsPorn
/AgriculturePorn
/TeaPorn
/BonsaiPorn
/FoodPorn
/CulinaryPorn
/DessertPorn
/DesignPorn
/RoomPorn
/AlbumArtPorn
/MetalPorn
/MoviePosterPorn
/TelevisionPosterPorn
/ComicBookPorn
/StreetArtPorn
/AdPorn
/ArtPorn
/FractalPorn
/InstrumentPorn
/ExposurePorn
/MacroPorn
/MicroPorn
/GeekPorn
/MTGPorn
/GamerPorn
/PowerWashingPorn
/AerialPorn
/OrganizationPorn
/FashionPorn
/AVPorn
/ApocalypsePorn
/InfraredPorn
/ViewPorn
/HellscapePorn
/sculptureporn
/HistoryPorn
/UniformPorn
/BookPorn
/NewsPorn
/QuotesPorn
/FuturePorn
/FossilPorn
/MegalithPorn
/ArtefactPorn
/fuckpongkrell/
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/80s/
/Enough_Sanders_Spam/
/YouFellForItFool/
/CanadaHunting/
/DogCare/
/Dogtraining/
/comicbooks/
/theflash/
/Bikeporn/
/cycling/
/cyberpunk_stories
/iiiiiiitttttttttttt/
/DystopiaToday/
/AreTheStraightsOK/
/clevelandcavs/
/AmItheAsshole/
/LiverpoolFC/
/DissociaDID/
/TripCaves/
/Wholesomecringe/
/blackfishing/
/scioly/
/doodles/
/ICanDrawThat/
/Welding/
/NintendoSwitch/
/socialism
/ElectricForest/
/GaySoundsShitposts/
/writing/
/femalefashionadvice/
/asianamerican/
/zelda
/KingdomDeath/
/criminalminds/
added 9:00 AM US Eastern 6/9/2020
/SkincareAddiction/
/trees/
/startups/
/Norway/
/Entrepreneurs/
/GooglePixel/
/TaylorSwift/
/namenerds/
/selfservice/
/BalloonFetish/
/looners/
/walterlore/
/dogelore/
/Rowing/
/BrawlStarsCompetitive/
/RowingMemes/
/Eevee/
/pokemonmaxraids/
/RunnerHub/
/Roman_Catholics
/ihadastroke
/soccercirclejerk/
Latest added
/AsianBeauty/
/pokemon/
/BreadTube/
/AOC/
/Ilhan/
/LeftWithoutEdge/
/UniversityofChicago/
/ABraThatFits
/bulletjournal
/beatles
/the1975
/TheKillers
/MichaelJackson/
/mumfordandsons/
/AgeGap/
/AgeGapRelationship/
/whatintarnation/
/startrekgifs/
AdviceAnimals
wholesomememes
kirby
/actuallesbians
/TransyTalk
/TraaButOnlyBees
submitted by memesandcommunism to copypasta [link] [comments]


2020.09.16 09:36 SugarDaddyMeetApp My Best Friend Is a Sugar Daddy. What Is That Like?

First, the numbers.
44: age of my best friend, John
150–200: number of women he has dated since August 1, 2016
2: average dates per week
9: most dates in one week
60: number of women he has slept within that time
48: his oldest partner
17: his youngest partner (her profile said she was 18, officer!)
$12,000–15,000: what John has paid these dates. I don’t mean the price of the outings, the meals and movies, and tanks of gas. I mean the — well, it goes by several names. Stipend. Allowance. Per-meeting cost. It is a strange lifestyle, one of transactional affection, torts and tickers, ships that pay in the night, dinner, and a movie not as foreplay but fee harvesting. My best friend is, in short, a sugar daddy.
Sugar daddies have been around for ages. The term is an amalgam of “sugar,” a slang term for money, and “daddy,” a reference to an older man, and it dates back to the 1920s. The last few years have seen a rise in interest in sugar culture. A Google search for “sugar daddy” turns up nearly 2 million results, with “sugar baby” yielding another 3 million.
Money is, of course, the cardinal rule, but not all sugar babies are Melania Trump types seeking pampering at the hands of billionaires. About half are working their way through college. Others are between jobs, struggling with debt, or simply interested in older men. Whatever their motives, sugar babies are having a moment.
It takes two to Venmo, however, and few writers seem interested in portraying sugar daddies as anything other than rich and powerful Bruce Wayne wannabees. John is not in his 60s. He is well-off but not wealthy. He doesn’t sit on corporate boards, have box seats at The Met, or own a tuxedo. The only person who paparazzos him is his mother. He got into sugaring, not for arm candy but to mitigate the risk of getting hurt (more on this later). He finds his babies on SeekingArrangement, the first and best-known sugar dating site, which was founded in 2006 and has over 3.5 million members, according to some sources.
He joined the site in 2016, and in a little less than two years, he has, in his words, “felt all the breasts — big, small, flabby, perky, fake, real.” Most of the women have been under 30. Many were under 25. He’s dated college students, single moms, middle-agers, and a married couple. Redheads, blondes, brunettes. Asian, African-American, German, Brazilian, British, Mexican, Moroccan, plain old Southern. A bartender, a biochemist, small business owners, exotic dancers, office workers, an engineer, a lawyer, a nanny, “between jobs.”
A fashion model.
A former Playboy bunny.
As with any dating, there have been ups and downs. One woman excused herself during dinner and never came back. One kept texting her father all night, including to ask him what she should order for her meal. One threw up on his bathroom floor. One got drunk, made a list of his flaws, and said she couldn’t wait to see how big his penis was. Some were into bondage, some into DDLG, and one in California still says she is in love with him. They have never met.
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2020.09.06 09:06 greenteaandleaves [kpop] What happens when a former controversial Twitter stan becomes a kpop idol

Those who have only the vaguest conception of what kpop is might be surprised to find out that the process to become an idol is pretty straightforward, if fiendishly difficult. Dozens of Korean entertainment companies periodically put out calls for auditions, and wannabe superstars are graded on their vocals, dance, and looks. Those that pass aren't automatically in- they become "trainees", and train for months and often years while still attending high school and living in shared, spartan dorms. A kpop company might have dozens or even hundreds of trainees, but only "debut" up to a dozen or so every few years as part of a new boy or girl group.
FNC Entertainment is one of those companies, and just recently announced an upcoming new boy group, P1Harmony, its first in four years. In the lead-up to their first debut single, the company has begun drip-feeding information about the group, starting with member reveals. Just a few days ago, teaser photos were dropped of a trainee with the stage name Keeho. Stan twt (EDIT: a common shorthand for the vast Kpop twitter universe) soon noted the striking resemblance of the idol to the man behind the (deactivated) twitter account @/busanwings. An aggressive investigation immediately commenced.
For those who have somehow managed to completely avoid the Kpop side of the internet: stan twt puts detectives, Reddit, and true crime podcasts to shame when it comes to investigative work. This is a community that can tell the identity of an idol from the reflection on the back of a spoon. So, needless to say, when the connection between Keeho and busanwings came out, so did every shard of skeleton bone lingering in his closet.

Starting from the most tame to the most egregious (by western standards):
-Old tweets sexualizing certain idols (For example: "He invites you backstage at the wings concert to tickle his balls for 7 hours straight wwyd", with an attached photo of idol Jimin of BTS). While honestly extremely mild by Kpop stan twt standards, it should be noted that South Korea is an *extremely* sexually conservative country. This is a country where heterosexual idols openly dating is frowned upon. (Though that is slowly changing with recent high-profile celebrity couples like Hyuna and DAWN or Jihyo and Kang Daniel.) There's only one openly queer idol I am aware of, and he's a soloist. Kpop in general tiptoes the line between being sexy and being overtly sexual.
-Being an EXO anti. An "anti" is the mirror opposite of a stan, someone who actively hates a certain idol or group. busanwings was mainly a BTS stan, and during the time he was active, BTS and EXO fans were notorious for their rivalry as the two top boy groups of their generation. While the rivalry has since died down a bit, there's still some lingering animus between the two groups' fandoms, at least among the type of fan who sees kpop as a competition. For busanwings, this manifested as tweets disparaging EXO's accomplishments relative to BTS and frequent arguments with EXO-Ls (the fandom name for EXO).
-Harassment. An EXO stan account run by a black woman accused him of saving her selfies and using them as material to harass her for months on end- a claim later backed up by several others who claimed the same had happened to them. (Most of these threads have since been deleted.) In addition, an old curiouscat answer was unearthed in which he claimed to have "never cyberbullied girls unless i had a reason to." (Curiouscat, for those unaware, is a site where people can anonymously send questions to people who have an account.)
(EDIT: A quick note that I should have made more explicit, which is that allegations != proof. The twitter account was deactivated and though screenshots were surfaced, this is a community where one of the most popular forms of transformative media is the "social media AU", essentially multimedia fanfiction told through fake screenshots of fake idol twitters and texts. On the other hand, the curiouscat account (@/crackerphobic) was not deactivated so all statements made there can easily be verified. In addition, well, you'll have to read on.)

Once all this material was dug up, the first question was: was Keeho really busanwings? Evidence centered around two things: one, busanwings was an avid selfie-poster and he sure did look like Keeho, once you took extremely heavy Kpop stage makeup into account. Two, Keeho had posted various vague insinuations that he'd been attempting auditions on twitter ("y'all jus need to know if i deactivate and y'all see me on tv all of a sudden don't question me that's a whole other person") and on curiouscat (Q: "are you actually planning on to be a kpop idol" A: "yes im auditioning to sm next month").
Eventually, the evidence mounted to the degree it seemed impossible to deny that Keeho was, indeed, busanwings. There were growing calls for him to be dismissed from the group while it would still be relatively painless to do so, thus sparing the five other group members from his baggage. At this point FNC posted a statement to the same Twitter account they'd first posted the teaser. In this statement, they seemed to confirm that the account was, in fact, Keeho. But rather than take responsibility on his account, FNC stated that the controversial posts were not made by him. Instead, the account was run with seven other people and *they* were the ones that made that post. In addition, FNC stated that there was no way Keeho could be racist as he had grown up in the US and was Asian. FNC did apologize on Keeho's behalf for the fact the posts were made and he did not remove them, but completely denied any responsibility on his side otherwise.
Stan twt, of course, had a field day with the statement. A large contingent simply smelled BS. Others pointed out that being OK with problematic content posted on your behalf was little different from posting it yourself. And everyone found the idea that being Asian American automatically exempted one from being antiblack as hilarious on its face.
Just a couple of hours later, Keeho posted a hand-written apology on the FNC twitter in both English and Korean. He again reiterated that the offending posts were not made by him, though he accepted responsibility for allowing them to be posted, and that as someone "from a racially diverse community" he was aware of the seriousness of racism. Stan twt was not appeased.
There is some proof that the account was, indeed, shared, in the form of screenshots of the alleged group chat where passwords were shared, and an affirmative answer to the question "do you give access to your account to some of your mutuals?", posted on curiouscat in 2017.
Overall, the pro-Keeho contingent argues that Keeho was just 15 at the time the posts were made, and everyone's an idiot at 15. The retort to this has been that kpop is such a grueling lottery that there are plenty of kids with equal talent and ability who do not have such baggage who could take his place, and that it's unfair to the other 5 members of the group to have his shadow cast onto them.
As of today, Keeho has not left the group. But their first single isn't coming out until October, so there's still, presumably, time.
In conclusion, kids, never post identifying information online, you never know when it'll come back to haunt you. At the very least, don't tempt fate by replying "omg i wish" when someone tells you "I WANT YOU TO MAKE IT IN KOREA BUT IMAGINE IF THEY EXPOSE UR TWITTER"

That's the end of the story so far for *that* particular drama, and you can quit reading here, but the story becomes even juicier with some additional context.

(TRIGGER WARNINGS: bullying, self-harm, suicide, sexual assault)

Roughly speaking, there are three categories of kpop company. The first tier is composed of the "Big Three" (YG, SM, and JYP) and Bighit (of BTS fame). They aren't considered the "Big Four" (yet) as Bighit hasn't proved its longevity with multiple popular groups in the way the other three have. Youtube views aren't a perfect measure of popularity, but all four companies have currently active groups that regularly pull 100 million+ views.
The second tier is composed of companies that have had one or two successful, popular groups but which did not quite crack international superstar status, and who have overall been more hit-and-miss in their success rate. Their groups tend to pull 10 million+ views on youtube if they're successful, and the low millions if they're not. Examples include Cube, Woolim, and Starship.
Finally, there are "nugu" ("nobody" in Korean) companies that are usually started by former employees of more successful companies, and are still struggling to gain recognition. Some of the more well-known unknown companies (if you'll forgive the oxymoron) are Beat Interactive and Happy Face Entertainment. Views range from the low millions to a few hundred.
In this ranking, FNC is solidly in the second tier. Its most successful group so far is arguably Ace of Angels, a girl group known for a "sexy" image and for its relative longevity in the harsh world of kpop. But its eight years were not free of scandal. Originally debuting as an eight member group, over the course of time three members left, each citing "mental health" as the reason.
A few months ago, one of the former members, Kwon Mina, posted a long rant in response to a harassing message, in which she accused a member of AoA of extreme bullying that lasted over ten years, driving her to depression, self-harm, and multiple suicide attempts. Subsequent posts revealed that member to be Jimin, the group's leader. FNC tried to broker peace between the two women (and their hamfisted attempts was a controversy in its own right) but Jimin ultimately left the group and the industry and has not been heard from since. After a series of public breakdowns, Mina deleted her social media accounts to focus on her mental health. While there has been no mention of AoA disbanding, the now four member group has had no activities since the controversy. (A bright spot, however, has been the reappearance of former member Choa, who after disappearing from the public eye after quitting the group, has re-emerged as a soloist. Some speculate her quitting the industry was also due to Jimin's bullying.)
Scandals by FNC group members don't end with P1Harmony and AoA. In fact, two FNC artists were tied to the most famous kpop scandal of all time, a truly outrageous series of human rights violations nicknamed by kpop as Burning Molka. It would be impossible to summarize all the events here- it was enough to warrant 33 (!) separate megathreads. In any case, only one part of it is relevant to FNC- the exist of a chatroom among male idols and their friends that contained "molka" (sexual videos of women taken without their knowledge or consent) as well as open discussion of sexual assaults they committed. Among the members of the chatroom were Choi Jong-hoon and Lee Jong-hyun- members of FTIsland and CNBlue, respectively. Both are FNC groups. Choi Jong-hoon has been tried and sentenced, while Lee Jong-hyun has since left CNBlue. (EDIT: An earlier version of this post confused Lee Jong-hyun and Jung Joon-young. While both were part of the chatroom scandal, Jung Joon-young was much more central to it. User u/enjollras provides additional context in this comment.)
You might think with all that FNC would undoubtedly be considered the most controversial kpop company of all time, at least among the ones that achieved some degree of success. Well- no. It's definitely a contender, but it faces stiff competition in the form of YG Entertainment, one of the Big Three companies and the agency behind 2NE1, Big Bang, and Blackpink. But that'll have to be a separate post.
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2020.09.02 21:12 mr_tyler_durden Notes and Highlights of Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear’s Live Update September 2, 2020

Notes and Highlights of Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear’s Live Update September 2, 2020
Notes by mr_tyler_durden and Daily Update Team
Register for your Absentee Ballot here!
Watch here:
Headlines
Full Notes
(continued in stickied comment)
submitted by mr_tyler_durden to Coronavirus_KY [link] [comments]


2020.09.01 12:54 pineapplecheers Some Statistics on Islam in the Western World.

Some Statistics on Islam in the Western World.
Note: These are only the stats on Islam in the west, the stats on Islam in the Muslim majority world are much more depressing.
UK
  1. US Diplomatic Cables: One-Third of British Muslim students support killing for Islam.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1340599/WikiLeaks-1-3-British-Muslim-students-killing-Islam-40-want-Sharia-law.html
  1. Britain’s Ministry of Defence: More British Muslims have Fought for ISIS than having Served in the British Armed Forces.
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2014/08/21/islamic-state-americans-british/14384045/
  1. NOP Research: 68% of British Muslims support the arrest and prosecution of anyone who insults Islam.
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/many-british-muslims-put-islam-first/
  1. NOP Research: 62% of British Muslims do not believe in the protection of free speech.
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06
  1. ICM Mirror 2016: 2 in 3 Muslims in Britain Would not Report Terror Plot to Police.
https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/659913/two-in-three-British-Muslims-would-NOT-give-police-terror-tip-offs
  1. ICM Mirror 2015: 1.5 Million British Muslims support the Islamic State, about half the total population.
http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/muslim-leader-isis-supporting-brits-disenfranchised-6018357
  1. NOP Research: 78% of British Muslims support punishing the publishers of Muhammad cartoons.
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06
  1. AlJazeera Poll: 40% of UK Muslims want Sharia.
https://www.aljazeera.com/archive/2006/02/20084915451911371.html
  1. 25% of UK mosques have literature calling for the beheading of lapsed Muslims, ordering women to remain Indoors, and forbidding interfaith marriages.
https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/lessons-in-hate-found-at-leading-mosques-wzbwdtb2g0n?wgu=270525_16644_15959047563588_48638ee643&wgexpiry=1603680756&utm_source=planit&utm_medium=affiliate&utm_content=4551
  1. Gallup: Zero percent of UK Muslims think homosexuality is morally acceptable.
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/may/07/muslims-britain-france-germany-homosexuality
  1. Policy Exchange 2016: Half of British Muslims would not go to cops if they knew someone with ISIS links.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2308529/half-british-muslims-would-not-report-is-supporters/
NETHERLANDS
  1. Forum Multicultural Institute: 80% of young Dutch Muslims see nothing wrong with Holy War against non-believers.
Most verbalized support for pro-Islamic State fighters.
https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2014/11/young-dutch-turks-radical-views-worry-mps-call-for-more-research/
SWEDEN
  1. Koopmans 2018: 52% of Sweden Muslims believe that Sharia is more important than Swedish law.
https://www.svd.se/radikal-islamism-drabbar-alla
  1. AHA Foundation: Six out of ten mosques in Sweden gave women advice about how to deal with spousal abuse and polygamy that contradicted Swedish law.
Six out of the ten mosques visited by the women, who had also claimed that their husbands had multiple wives, told them that they should nevertheless agree to have sex with their husbands even if they didn’t want to.
Six of the mosques also advised the women against reporting spousal abuse to the police.
https://www.theahafoundation.org/six-out-of-ten-mosques-in-sweden-gave-women-advice-about-how-to-deal-with-spousal-abuse-and-polygamy-that-contradicted-swedish-law-a-media-investigation-has-revealed/
GERMANY
  1. Die Welt 2012: 46% of Muslims in Germany hope there will eventually be more Muslims than Christians in Germany.
http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article108659406/Tuerkische-Migranten-hoffen-auf-muslimische-Mehrheit.html
FRANCE
  1. 46% of French Muslims believe Sharia law should be applied in country.
https://www.i24news.tv/en/news/international/europe/1568920086-poll-46-of-french-muslims-believe-sharia-law-should-be-applied-in-country
AUSTRIA
  1. FPO 2014: 43% of Islamic teachers in Austria openly advocate Sharia law over democracy.
http://rt.com/news/208387-austria-islam-kindergarten-muslim/
DENMARK
  1. Integration Barometer 2018: 27% of young migrants in Denmark say Islamic law should override Danish law.
https://sputniknews.com/europe/201803151062553576-denmark-copenhagen-sharia/
  1. Danish Justice Ministry 2020: 76% of Muslims want criticism of Islam criminalized in Denmark.
https://sputniknews.com/amp/europe/202005041079186984-majority-of-danish-muslims-wish-to-make-criticising-islam-illegal-minister-says-integrate-or-leave/
  1. Jyllands-Posten: 77% of Muslims in Denmark think that the Quran must be applied fully in the Danish society.
https://jyllands-posten.dk/indland/ECE8103969/Danske-muslimer-g%C3%A5r-mere-op-i-b%C3%B8n-t%C3%B8rkl%C3%A6der-og-Koranen/
USA
  1. CSP: 51% of US Muslims want Sharia.
https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2015/06/23/nationwide-poll-of-us-muslims-shows-thousands-support-shariah-jihad/
  1. Pew Research: 72% of Muslim Americans support the proposal to build a mosque and Islamic community center near Ground Zero, the site of the 9/11 attacks on New York.
https://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2011/08/30/Most-US-Muslims-back-Ground-Zero-mosque/54511314737569/
  1. American Mosques: Correlation Between Sharia Adherence and Dogma Calling for Violence Against Non-Believers.
51% have texts on site rated as severely advocating violence.
30% have texts rated as moderately advocating violence.
In 84.5% of the mosques, the Imam recommends studying violence-positive texts.
http://www.meforum.org/2931/american-mosques
CANADA
  1. MacDonald Laurier Institute: 62% of Muslims want Sharia in Canada.
https://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/much-good-news-and-some-worrying-results-in-new-study-of-muslim-public-opinion-in-canada/
  1. Association for Canadian Studies: 42% of Muslims in Canada believe that Islam is irreconcilable with Western society.
https://vancouversun.com/news/staff-blogs/most-canadians-believe-west-and-islam-irreconcileable-poll
OVERALL in Europe
  1. WZB: 65% of Muslims in Europe Want Islamic Sharia Law in Their European Host Countries.
https://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/4092/europe-islamic-fundamentalism
WORLDWIDE
  1. World Bank: ISIS Recruits are Better Educated than their Average Countrymen.
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/10/06/isil-recruits-better-educated-than-their-average-countryman-worl/
  1. INSS: 99.5% of all Suicide Attacks in 2015 were Motivated by Islam.
http://www.timesofisrael.com/450-of-452-suicide-attacks-in-2015-were-by-muslim-extremists-study-shows/
  1. The Freethought Report 2013: There are now 13 countries in the world where the state can execute you for being an atheist. Every single one is officially Islamic.
https://www.indiatoday.in/world/story/atheists-face-death-in-13-countries-global-discrimination-study-220495-2013-12-12
  1. There are 11 places in the world where homosexuals are legally sentenced to death. Every single one is officially Islamic.
https://www.gaytimes.co.uk/life/here-are-the-11-countries-where-being-gay-is-punishable-by-death/
  1. There are 9 places in the world that still have stoning as a form of legal punishment. Every single one is officially Islamic.
Stoning is a legal punishment for adultery in Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/special-report-the-punishment-was-death-by-stoning-the-crime-having-a-mobile-phone-8846585.html
  1. Pew Research Centre: The Majority of Muslims worldwide favor Sharia.
84% of South Asian Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
77% of Southeast Asian Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
74% of Middle Eastern and North African Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
64% of Sub Saharan African Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
Primary Source - Pew Research Centre - The Worlds Muslims: Religion, Politics, and Society.
https://layman.org/survey-shows-majority-of-muslims-in-favor-of-sharia/
  1. Pew Research: The Majority of Muslims worldwide believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
85% of the Muslims worldwide believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
93% of the Muslims in Southeast Asia believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
88% of the Muslims in South Asia believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
87% of the Muslims in Middle East/North Africa believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
Primary Source - Pew Research Centre - The Worlds Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society.
https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/05/what-muslims-around-the-world-think-about-womens-rights-in-charts/275450/
  1. Worldwide Trends on Honor Killings:
91% of the Honor killings, worldwide, are perpetrated by Muslims.
96% of the Honor killings in Europe are perpetrated by Muslims.
84% of the Honor killings in North America are perpetrated by Muslims.
These crimes are not mainly about women having actual affairs.
Worldwide, 58% of victims are murdered for being "too Western" (as opposed to for reasons of actual alleged or imagined sexual impropriety).
In North America, 91% are murdered for being "too Western".
In Europe, 71% are murdered for being "too Western".
https://www.meforum.org/2646/worldwide-trends-in-honor-killings
submitted by pineapplecheers to IndiaRWResources [link] [comments]


2020.09.01 04:35 pineapplecheers Some Statistics on Islam in the Western World.

Note: These are only the stats on Islam in the west, the stats on Islam in the Muslim majority world are much more depressing.
UK
  1. US Diplomatic Cables: One-Third of British Muslim students support killing for Islam.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1340599/WikiLeaks-1-3-British-Muslim-students-killing-Islam-40-want-Sharia-law.html
  1. Britain’s Ministry of Defence: More British Muslims have Fought for ISIS than having Served in the British Armed Forces.
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2014/08/21/islamic-state-americans-british/14384045/
  1. NOP Research: 68% of British Muslims support the arrest and prosecution of anyone who insults Islam.
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/many-british-muslims-put-islam-first/
  1. NOP Research: 62% of British Muslims do not believe in the protection of free speech.
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06
  1. ICM Mirror 2016: 2 in 3 Muslims in Britain Would not Report Terror Plot to Police.
https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/659913/two-in-three-British-Muslims-would-NOT-give-police-terror-tip-offs
  1. ICM Mirror 2015: 1.5 Million British Muslims support the Islamic State, about half the total population.
http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/muslim-leader-isis-supporting-brits-disenfranchised-6018357
  1. NOP Research: 78% of British Muslims support punishing the publishers of Muhammad cartoons.
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06
  1. AlJazeera Poll: 40% of UK Muslims want Sharia.
https://www.aljazeera.com/archive/2006/02/20084915451911371.html
  1. 25% of UK mosques have literature calling for the beheading of lapsed Muslims, ordering women to remain Indoors, and forbidding interfaith marriages.
https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/lessons-in-hate-found-at-leading-mosques-wzbwdtb2g0n?wgu=270525_16644_15959047563588_48638ee643&wgexpiry=1603680756&utm_source=planit&utm_medium=affiliate&utm_content=4551
  1. Gallup: Zero percent of UK Muslims think homosexuality is morally acceptable.
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/may/07/muslims-britain-france-germany-homosexuality
  1. Policy Exchange 2016: Half of British Muslims would not go to cops if they knew someone with ISIS links.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2308529/half-british-muslims-would-not-report-is-supporters/
NETHERLANDS
  1. Forum Multicultural Institute: 80% of young Dutch Muslims see nothing wrong with Holy War against non-believers.
Most verbalized support for pro-Islamic State fighters.
https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2014/11/young-dutch-turks-radical-views-worry-mps-call-for-more-research/
SWEDEN
  1. Koopmans 2018: 52% of Sweden Muslims believe that Sharia is more important than Swedish law.
https://www.svd.se/radikal-islamism-drabbar-alla
  1. AHA Foundation: Six out of ten mosques in Sweden gave women advice about how to deal with spousal abuse and polygamy that contradicted Swedish law.
Six out of the ten mosques visited by the women, who had also claimed that their husbands had multiple wives, told them that they should nevertheless agree to have sex with their husbands even if they didn’t want to.
Six of the mosques also advised the women against reporting spousal abuse to the police.
https://www.theahafoundation.org/six-out-of-ten-mosques-in-sweden-gave-women-advice-about-how-to-deal-with-spousal-abuse-and-polygamy-that-contradicted-swedish-law-a-media-investigation-has-revealed/
GERMANY
  1. Die Welt 2012: 46% of Muslims in Germany hope there will eventually be more Muslims than Christians in Germany.
http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article108659406/Tuerkische-Migranten-hoffen-auf-muslimische-Mehrheit.html
FRANCE
  1. IFOP: 46% of French Muslims believe Sharia law should be applied in country.
https://www.i24news.tv/en/news/international/europe/1568920086-poll-46-of-french-muslims-believe-sharia-law-should-be-applied-in-country
AUSTRIA
  1. FPO 2014: 43% of Islamic teachers in Austria openly advocate Sharia law over democracy.
http://rt.com/news/208387-austria-islam-kindergarten-muslim/
DENMARK
  1. Integration Barometer 2018: 27% of young migrants in Denmark say Islamic law should override Danish law.
https://sputniknews.com/europe/201803151062553576-denmark-copenhagen-sharia/
  1. Danish Justice Ministry 2020: 76% of Muslims want criticism of Islam criminalized in Denmark.
https://sputniknews.com/amp/europe/202005041079186984-majority-of-danish-muslims-wish-to-make-criticising-islam-illegal-minister-says-integrate-or-leave/
  1. Jyllands-Posten: 77% of Muslims in Denmark think that the Quran must be applied fully in the Danish society.
https://jyllands-posten.dk/indland/ECE8103969/Danske-muslimer-g%C3%A5r-mere-op-i-b%C3%B8n-t%C3%B8rkl%C3%A6der-og-Koranen/
USA
  1. CSP: 51% of US Muslims want Sharia.
https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2015/06/23/nationwide-poll-of-us-muslims-shows-thousands-support-shariah-jihad/
  1. Pew Research: 72% of Muslim Americans support the proposal to build a mosque and Islamic community center near Ground Zero, the site of the 9/11 attacks on New York.
https://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2011/08/30/Most-US-Muslims-back-Ground-Zero-mosque/54511314737569/
  1. American Mosques: Correlation Between Sharia Adherence and Dogma Calling for Violence Against Non-Believers.
51% have texts on site rated as severely advocating violence.
30% have texts rated as moderately advocating violence.
In 84.5% of the mosques, the Imam recommends studying violence-positive texts.
http://www.meforum.org/2931/american-mosques
CANADA
  1. MacDonald Laurier Institute: 62% of Muslims want Sharia in Canada.
https://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/much-good-news-and-some-worrying-results-in-new-study-of-muslim-public-opinion-in-canada/
  1. Association for Canadian Studies: 42% of Muslims in Canada believe that Islam is irreconcilable with Western society.
https://vancouversun.com/news/staff-blogs/most-canadians-believe-west-and-islam-irreconcileable-poll
OVERALL in Europe
  1. WZB: 65% of Muslims in Europe Want Islamic Sharia Law in Their European Host Countries.
https://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/4092/europe-islamic-fundamentalism
WORLDWIDE
  1. World Bank: ISIS Recruits are Better Educated than their Average Countrymen.
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/10/06/isil-recruits-better-educated-than-their-average-countryman-worl/
  1. INSS: 99.5% of all Suicide Attacks in 2015 were Motivated by Islam.
http://www.timesofisrael.com/450-of-452-suicide-attacks-in-2015-were-by-muslim-extremists-study-shows/
  1. The Freethought Report 2013: There are now 13 countries in the world where the state can execute you for being an atheist. Every single one is officially Islamic.
https://www.indiatoday.in/world/story/atheists-face-death-in-13-countries-global-discrimination-study-220495-2013-12-12
  1. There are 11 places in the world where homosexuals are legally sentenced to death. Every single one is officially Islamic.
https://www.gaytimes.co.uk/life/here-are-the-11-countries-where-being-gay-is-punishable-by-death/
  1. There are 9 places in the world that still have stoning as a form of legal punishment. Every single one is officially Islamic.
Stoning is a legal punishment for adultery in Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/special-report-the-punishment-was-death-by-stoning-the-crime-having-a-mobile-phone-8846585.html
  1. Pew Research Centre: The Majority of Muslims worldwide favor Sharia.
84% of South Asian Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
77% of Southeast Asian Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
74% of Middle Eastern and North African Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
64% of Sub Saharan African Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
Primary Source - Pew Research Centre - The Worlds Muslims: Religion, Politics, and Society.
https://layman.org/survey-shows-majority-of-muslims-in-favor-of-sharia/
  1. Pew Research: The Majority of Muslims worldwide believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
85% of the Muslims worldwide believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
93% of the Muslims in Southeast Asia believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
88% of the Muslims in South Asia believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
87% of the Muslims in Middle East/North Africa believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
Primary Source - Pew Research Centre - The Worlds Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society.
https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/05/what-muslims-around-the-world-think-about-womens-rights-in-charts/275450/
  1. Worldwide Trends on Honor Killings:
91% of the Honor killings, worldwide, are perpetrated by Muslims.
96% of the Honor killings in Europe are perpetrated by Muslims.
84% of the Honor killings in North America are perpetrated by Muslims.
These crimes are not mainly about women having actual affairs.
Worldwide, 58% of victims are murdered for being "too Western" (as opposed to for reasons of actual alleged or imagined sexual impropriety).
In North America, 91% are murdered for being "too Western".
In Europe, 71% are murdered for being "too Western".
https://www.meforum.org/2646/worldwide-trends-in-honor-killings
submitted by pineapplecheers to Chodi [link] [comments]


2020.09.01 04:33 pineapplecheers Some Statistics on Islam in the Western World.

Note: These are only the stats on Islam in the west, the stats on Islam in the Muslim majority world are much more depressing.
UK
  1. US Diplomatic Cables: One-Third of British Muslim students support killing for Islam.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1340599/WikiLeaks-1-3-British-Muslim-students-killing-Islam-40-want-Sharia-law.html
  1. Britain’s Ministry of Defence: More British Muslims have Fought for ISIS than having Served in the British Armed Forces.
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2014/08/21/islamic-state-americans-british/14384045/
  1. NOP Research: 68% of British Muslims support the arrest and prosecution of anyone who insults Islam.
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/many-british-muslims-put-islam-first/
  1. NOP Research: 62% of British Muslims do not believe in the protection of free speech.
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06
  1. ICM Mirror 2016: 2 in 3 Muslims in Britain Would not Report Terror Plot to Police.
https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/659913/two-in-three-British-Muslims-would-NOT-give-police-terror-tip-offs
  1. ICM Mirror 2015: 1.5 Million British Muslims support the Islamic State, about half the total population.
http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/muslim-leader-isis-supporting-brits-disenfranchised-6018357
  1. NOP Research: 78% of British Muslims support punishing the publishers of Muhammad cartoons.
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06
  1. AlJazeera Poll: 40% of UK Muslims want Sharia.
https://www.aljazeera.com/archive/2006/02/20084915451911371.html
  1. 25% of UK mosques have literature calling for the beheading of lapsed Muslims, ordering women to remain Indoors, and forbidding interfaith marriages.
https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/lessons-in-hate-found-at-leading-mosques-wzbwdtb2g0n?wgu=270525_16644_15959047563588_48638ee643&wgexpiry=1603680756&utm_source=planit&utm_medium=affiliate&utm_content=4551
  1. Gallup: Zero percent of UK Muslims think homosexuality is morally acceptable.
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/may/07/muslims-britain-france-germany-homosexuality
  1. Policy Exchange 2016: Half of British Muslims would not go to cops if they knew someone with ISIS links.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2308529/half-british-muslims-would-not-report-is-supporters/
NETHERLANDS
  1. Forum Multicultural Institute: 80% of young Dutch Muslims see nothing wrong with Holy War against non-believers.
Most verbalized support for pro-Islamic State fighters.
https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2014/11/young-dutch-turks-radical-views-worry-mps-call-for-more-research/
SWEDEN
  1. Koopmans 2018: 52% of Sweden Muslims believe that Sharia is more important than Swedish law.
https://www.svd.se/radikal-islamism-drabbar-alla
  1. AHA Foundation: Six out of ten mosques in Sweden gave women advice about how to deal with spousal abuse and polygamy that contradicted Swedish law.
Six out of the ten mosques visited by the women, who had also claimed that their husbands had multiple wives, told them that they should nevertheless agree to have sex with their husbands even if they didn’t want to.
Six of the mosques also advised the women against reporting spousal abuse to the police.
https://www.theahafoundation.org/six-out-of-ten-mosques-in-sweden-gave-women-advice-about-how-to-deal-with-spousal-abuse-and-polygamy-that-contradicted-swedish-law-a-media-investigation-has-revealed/
GERMANY
  1. Die Welt 2012: 46% of Muslims in Germany hope there will eventually be more Muslims than Christians in Germany.
http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article108659406/Tuerkische-Migranten-hoffen-auf-muslimische-Mehrheit.html
AUSTRIA
  1. FPO 2014: 43% of Islamic teachers in Austria openly advocate Sharia law over democracy.
http://rt.com/news/208387-austria-islam-kindergarten-muslim/
DENMARK
  1. Integration Barometer 2018: 27% of young migrants in Denmark say Islamic law should override Danish law.
https://sputniknews.com/europe/201803151062553576-denmark-copenhagen-sharia/
  1. Danish Justice Ministry 2020: 76% of Muslims want criticism of Islam criminalized in Denmark.
https://sputniknews.com/amp/europe/202005041079186984-majority-of-danish-muslims-wish-to-make-criticising-islam-illegal-minister-says-integrate-or-leave/
USA
  1. CSP: 51% of US Muslims want Sharia.
https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2015/06/23/nationwide-poll-of-us-muslims-shows-thousands-support-shariah-jihad/
  1. Pew Research: 72% of Muslim Americans support the proposal to build a mosque and Islamic community center near Ground Zero, the site of the 9/11 attacks on New York.
https://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2011/08/30/Most-US-Muslims-back-Ground-Zero-mosque/54511314737569/
  1. American Mosques: Correlation Between Sharia Adherence and Dogma Calling for Violence Against Non-Believers.
51% have texts on site rated as severely advocating violence.
30% have texts rated as moderately advocating violence.
In 84.5% of the mosques, the Imam recommends studying violence-positive texts.
http://www.meforum.org/2931/american-mosques
CANADA
  1. MacDonald Laurier Institute: 62% of Muslims want Sharia in Canada.
https://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/much-good-news-and-some-worrying-results-in-new-study-of-muslim-public-opinion-in-canada/
OVERALL in Europe
  1. WZB: 65% of Muslims in Europe Want Islamic Sharia Law in Their European Host Countries.
https://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/4092/europe-islamic-fundamentalism
WORLDWIDE
  1. World Bank: ISIS Recruits are Better Educated than their Average Countrymen.
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/10/06/isil-recruits-better-educated-than-their-average-countryman-worl/
  1. INSS: 99.5% of all Suicide Attacks in 2015 were Motivated by Islam.
http://www.timesofisrael.com/450-of-452-suicide-attacks-in-2015-were-by-muslim-extremists-study-shows/
  1. The Freethought Report 2013: There are now 13 countries in the world where the state can execute you for being an atheist. Every single one is officially Islamic.
https://www.indiatoday.in/world/story/atheists-face-death-in-13-countries-global-discrimination-study-220495-2013-12-12
  1. There are 11 places in the world where homosexuals are legally sentenced to death. Every single one is officially Islamic.
https://www.gaytimes.co.uk/life/here-are-the-11-countries-where-being-gay-is-punishable-by-death/
  1. There are 9 places in the world that still have stoning as a form of legal punishment. Every single one is officially Islamic.
Stoning is a legal punishment for adultery in Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/special-report-the-punishment-was-death-by-stoning-the-crime-having-a-mobile-phone-8846585.html
  1. Pew Research Centre: The Majority of Muslims worldwide favor Sharia.
84% of South Asian Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
77% of Southeast Asian Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
74% of Middle Eastern and North African Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
64% of Sub Saharan African Muslims favor enshrining Sharia.
Primary Source - Pew Research Centre - The Worlds Muslims: Religion, Politics, and Society.
https://layman.org/survey-shows-majority-of-muslims-in-favor-of-sharia/
7. Pew Research: The Majority of Muslims worldwide believe that wives should always obey their husbands. 
85% of the Muslims worldwide believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
93% of the Muslims in Southeast Asia believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
88% of the Muslims in South Asia believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
87% of the Muslims in Middle East/North Africa believe that wives should always obey their husbands.
Primary Source - Pew Research Centre - The Worlds Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society.
https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/05/what-muslims-around-the-world-think-about-womens-rights-in-charts/275450/
  1. Worldwide Trends on Honor Killings: 91 percent of honor killings are committed by Muslims worldwide.
https://canadafreepress.com/article/honour-killing-entrenched-in-islam
submitted by pineapplecheers to indianews [link] [comments]


2020.08.30 08:36 pineapplecheers Some Statistics on Islam in the Western World.

I know this may go against PWCI rules of this sub, but please don’t delete this one.
UK
  1. US Diplomatic Cables: One Third of British Muslim students support killing for Islam.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1340599/WikiLeaks-1-3-British-Muslim-students-killing-Islam-40-want-Sharia-law.html
  1. Britain’s Ministry of Defence: More British Muslims have Fought for ISIS than have Served in the British Armed Forces.
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2014/08/21/islamic-state-americans-british/14384045/
  1. NOP Research: 68% of British Muslims support the arrest and prosecution of anyone who insults Islam.
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/many-british-muslims-put-islam-first/
  1. NOP Research: 62% of British Muslims do not believe in the protection of free speech.
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06
  1. ICM Mirror 2016: 2 in 3 Muslims in Britain Would not Report Terror Plot to Police.
https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/659913/two-in-three-British-Muslims-would-NOT-give-police-terror-tip-offs
  1. ICM Mirror 2015: 1.5 Million British Muslims support the Islamic State, about half the total population.
http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/muslim-leader-isis-supporting-brits-disenfranchised-6018357
  1. NOP Research: 78% of British Muslims support punishing the publishers of Muhammad cartoons.
http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/14/opinion/main1893879.shtml&date=2011-04-06
  1. AlJazeera Poll: 40% of UK Muslims want Sharia.
https://www.aljazeera.com/archive/2006/02/20084915451911371.html
  1. 25% of UK mosques have literature calling for the beheading of lapsed Muslims, ordering women to remain Indoors and forbidding interfaith marriages.
https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/lessons-in-hate-found-at-leading-mosques-wzbwdtb2g0n?wgu=270525_16644_15959047563588_48638ee643&wgexpiry=1603680756&utm_source=planit&utm_medium=affiliate&utm_content=4551
  1. Gallup: Zero percent of UK Muslims think homosexuality is morally acceptable.
https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/may/07/muslims-britain-france-germany-homosexuality
  1. Policy Exchange 2016: Half of British Muslims would not go to cops if they knew someone with ISIS links.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2308529/half-british-muslims-would-not-report-is-supporters/
NETHERLANDS
  1. Forum Multicultural Institute: 80% of young Dutch Muslims see nothing wrong with Holy War against non-believers.
Most verbalized support for pro-Islamic State fighters.
https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2014/11/young-dutch-turks-radical-views-worry-mps-call-for-more-research/
SWEDEN
  1. Koopmans 2018: 52% of Sweden Muslims believe that Sharia is more important than Swedish Law.
https://www.svd.se/radikal-islamism-drabbar-alla
  1. AHA Foundation: Six out of ten mosques in Sweden gave women advice about how to deal with spousal abuse and polygamy that contradicted Swedish law.
Six out of the ten mosques visited by the women, who had also claimed that their husbands had multiple wives, told them that they should nevertheless agree to have sex with their husbands even if they didn’t want to.
Six of the mosques also advised the women against reporting spousal abuse to the police.
https://www.theahafoundation.org/six-out-of-ten-mosques-in-sweden-gave-women-advice-about-how-to-deal-with-spousal-abuse-and-polygamy-that-contradicted-swedish-law-a-media-investigation-has-revealed/
GERMANY
  1. Die Welt 2012: 46% of Muslims in Germany hope there will eventually be more Muslims than Christians in Germany.
http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article108659406/Tuerkische-Migranten-hoffen-auf-muslimische-Mehrheit.html
AUSTRIA
  1. FPO 2014: 43% of Islamic teachers in Austria openly advocate Sharia law over democracy.
http://rt.com/news/208387-austria-islam-kindergarten-muslim/
DENMARK
  1. Integration Barometer 2018: 27% of young migrants in Denmark say Islamic law should overide Danish law.
https://sputniknews.com/europe/201803151062553576-denmark-copenhagen-sharia/
  1. Danish Justice Ministry 2020: 76% of Muslims want criticism of Islam criminalized in Denmark.
https://sputniknews.com/amp/europe/202005041079186984-majority-of-danish-muslims-wish-to-make-criticising-islam-illegal-minister-says-integrate-or-leave/
USA
  1. CSP: 51% of US Muslims want Sharia.
https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2015/06/23/nationwide-poll-of-us-muslims-shows-thousands-support-shariah-jihad/
  1. Pew Research: 72% of Muslim Americans support the proposal to build a mosque and Islamic community centre near Ground Zero, the site of the 9/11 attacks on New York.
https://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2011/08/30/Most-US-Muslims-back-Ground-Zero-mosque/54511314737569/
  1. American Mosques: Correlation Between Sharia Adherence and Dogma Calling for Violence Against Non-Believers.
51% have texts on site rated as severely advocating violence.
30% have texts rated as moderately advocating violence.
In 84.5% of the mosques, the Imam recommends studying violence-positive texts.
http://www.meforum.org/2931/american-mosques
CANADA
  1. MacDonald Laurier Institute: 62% of Muslims want Sharia in Canada.
https://www.macdonaldlaurier.ca/much-good-news-and-some-worrying-results-in-new-study-of-muslim-public-opinion-in-canada/
OVERALL in the Europe
  1. WZB: 65% of Muslims in Europe Want Islamic Sharia Law in Their European Host Countries.
https://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/4092/europe-islamic-fundamentalism
WORLDWIDE
  1. World Bank: ISIS Recruits are Better Educated than their Average Countrymen.
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/10/06/isil-recruits-better-educated-than-their-average-countryman-worl/
  1. INSS: 99.5% of all Suicide Attacks in 2015 were Motivated by Islam.
http://www.timesofisrael.com/450-of-452-suicide-attacks-in-2015-were-by-muslim-extremists-study-shows/
  1. The Freethought Report 2013: There are now 13 countries in the world where the state can execute you for being atheist. Every single one is officially Islamic.
https://www.indiatoday.in/world/story/atheists-face-death-in-13-countries-global-discrimination-study-220495-2013-12-12
  1. There are 11 places in the world where homosexuals are legally sentenced to death. Every single one is officially Islamic.
https://www.gaytimes.co.uk/life/here-are-the-11-countries-where-being-gay-is-punishable-by-death/
  1. There are 9 places in the world that still have stoning as a form of legal punishment. Every single one is officially Islamic.
Stoning is a legal punishment for adultery in Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/special-report-the-punishment-was-death-by-stoning-the-crime-having-a-mobile-phone-8846585.html
  1. Pew Research Centre: The Majority of Muslims worldwide favour Sharia.
84% of South Asian Muslims favour enshrining Sharia.
77% of Southeast Asian Muslims favour enshrining Sharia.
74% of Middle Eastern and North African Muslims favour enshrining Sharia.
64% of Sub Saharan African Muslims favour enshrining Sharia.
Primary Source - Pew Research Centre - The Worlds Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society.
https://layman.org/survey-shows-majority-of-muslims-in-favor-of-sharia/
  1. Pew Research: The Majority of Muslims worldwide believe that wives always should obey their husbands.
85% of the Muslims worldwide believe that wives always should obey their husbands.
93% of the Muslims in Southeast Asia believe that wives always should obey their husbands.
88% of the Muslims in South Asia believe that wives always should obey their husbands.
87% of the Muslims in Middle East/North Africa believe that wives always should obey their husbands.
Primary Source - Pew Research Centre - The Worlds Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society.
https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/05/what-muslims-around-the-world-think-about-womens-rights-in-charts/275450/
  1. Worldwidw Trends in Honor Killings: 91 percent of honour killings are committed by Muslims worldwide.
https://canadafreepress.com/article/honour-killing-entrenched-in-islam
submitted by pineapplecheers to librandu [link] [comments]


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2020.08.26 10:33 hongqigong1 Asian American Men and Dating Part 2: Maintaining a Frame of Superiority

Check out Part 1: the Eunuch and the Merchant here
If you read Part 1, you might be wondering what the key to running this Merchant Game is. There are plenty of little tricks like cycling through your linked Instagram photos the right way (you don't want to make it all fancy luxury shit or you seem fake or pretentious, strive for a 50-50 balance) or making sure you have a well tailored suit and shirt (can get them relatively cheap from sites like Indochino, and they still look decently good) to wear to impress dates (I did this in casually dressed West Coast cities, if they asked about what I was wearing I would just say I was "at an event beforehand" and leave it at that, sometimes I would say I had a meeting with business associates from Asia - again, exploit the air of mystery).
But the most important key is to maintain a sense of effortless superiority about it all. Like you're too good for America (which, you really are).
If you go in and start talking about how rich you are, you'll seem fake and douchy as fuck. If you go in saying how lame America is or how much you hate it, you just sound like a weird asshole. Instead, you need to maintain a "frame" in which America is a quaint, amusing place to you - it's nice enough, but not quite on your level. If you can do this, it doesn't matter how wealthy you actually are, you will still "inhabit" the role of the foreign merchant and enjoy all the boost in status that comes with it.

So how do you maintain this frame? It can be really difficult, especially given all the marginalization we've faced as Asian men, all the racism and gaslighting, that constant nagging feeling that we aren't good enough or that we have to "play from behind." For a lot of AsAm men, this racist society has made our default state a feeling that we "aren't good enough for America", a far cry from feeling "blissfully superior to America".
I maintained this mental state by reinforcing a constant awareness of American decline in my day to day life. If you just Google "American decline" you can get plenty of hits, or read stuff like this, or this, or watching documentaries like this. I try to read this stuff on the regular, to maintain my ideal mental frame (doing it less these days since I'm married, but I was mainlining this kind of news like an out of work midwestern factory worker mainlines heroin back in my single days). Throughout all of this, I would just remind myself - as an Asian guy, I didn't cause this decline - but given the racism I've experienced, I sure as shit don't care to help stop it either.
The more I reinforced this perception in my mind, the easier it was to maintain frame. In fact, everywhere I looked, America started seeming like this insecure place that was in irreparable decline. The white people I encountered especially started looking real pathetic. It got to the point where I was seriously convinced every white person I encountered had at least 2 or 3 relatives who were addicted to heroin or facing eviction or living off food stamps. Regular doses of "decline porn" - news articles and blog posts about the country's problems, documentaries about low income whites - will have that effect on a person. And with that mental state, it was easy to retain my frame of free and blissful superiority over petty American concerns. You can think of it as training my mind to "neg" racist American society all the time, to see everything through a negging filter.
I know some folks on this subreddit like to point out the absurdly sinophobic articles that the American media loves to print. Once you fully accept this framework of American decline, you'll start seeing the deep insecurities in white America that are driving this sinophobia. The projection is glaringly obvious. "China is authoritarian and cracking down on blah-blah-blah" reflects fears around the Trump administration. "China is a kleptocracy" reflects fears around rising inequality and Wall Street stuff. "China censors and / or monitors the Internet" reflects paranoia around the borderline monopolistic aspects of Facebook and Google.
In fact, I like to use those projections and fears to... well, to help get myself laid. If you fear someone, you are by default assigning power to them - and lots of women get turned on by power. I would leverage this by mentioning some "big deal I was in the process of closing with a Chinese firm" or something like that if they asked about my work. This would often lead to a slightly shocked reaction - a sense of "omg China, aren't they censoring their people and monitoring everyone and blah blah blah?" - and again, keeping it mysterious, I would just say something like "You know, it's a rapidly evolving country. I certainly don't like everything about it, but I'm impressed by their progress, and the people there seem optimistic. I work with guys who tell me their entire families went from being peasants to owning multiple homes and all driving Beamers. Trump's America, on the other hand..." The projection of fear that America has cast on China also gives the place a veneer of power, and that veneer of power can be leveraged like this. The reaction I wanted to elicit was "Wow, everyone there is driving Beamers, meanwhile here my whole family is just backsliding due to the unequal economy..., etc etc". I think the pickup artist types call this sort of thing Demonstrating Higher Value.
(Btw, I did this even though my family's Korean and I spent much of my childhood in Taiwan - if you're Asian, you might as well be mainland China as far as racist America is concerned, lol - plus unlike a lot of self hating Asians, I don't have any hate for mainlanders, ya'll are just fellow yellow people to me)
After a while doing this sort of mental conditioning, I started seeing America as this weird blank slate. It started feeling like a place that was just a wide open casino or bazaar where I could just look for opportunities for myself - fun opportunities, profitable opportunities, whatever. And that's when I truly got on another level. Any time I went out, instead of being concerned about how racist this society was towards me, I felt adventurous instead. It felt like this country was nothing more than a temporary place for scraping money and partying. A place full of desperate and confused people who I could mess around with, dupe and cajole into all sorts of interesting situations that would be fun or beneficial for me. And I started seeing that other people, from similar immigrant communities, had a similar attitude - that America was just a place for money and a bit of fun, that it wasn't a place to be taken too seriously. Seeing that attitude, and hanging out with other immigrants from "New America", only helped to reinforce the same attitudes in myself.

Let me emphasize that I don't hate America. If you hate America, this type of game won't be effective for you. If you hate America, that means you've let America get to you and affect you, and too many of your thoughts will still be about your role in relation to America. Instead, I try to maintain a mindset of deep apathy and strategic opportunism towards America.
I believe that if you actively hate America, then you need to evolve in your thinking before you can become a fully empowered Asian man. Instead, try to meditate, read a lot and think deeply, travel the world as much as you can, and in the process understand just how insignificant America is in the grand scheme of things, how unworthy of your hate, in fact unworthy of any emotion. When you come out the other side of that process, you may just look at America as nothing but a game, an opportunity to have your own fun: sometimes it's a game of trying to get laid, sometimes it's a game of making money, other times it's just a game of humiliating some anti-Asian racists or annoying pro-white Asians.
And once you have that mindset, the incredible confidence that comes with it flows naturally.
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https://preview.redd.it/z55etkcuyri51.jpg?width=300&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9fe12786c1ed1f4e72dfc212c961c0abafa03d19
submitted by MansA23Augl to u/MansA23Augl [link] [comments]


2020.08.22 12:19 EnclavedMicrostate Tartaria: The Supposed Mega-Empire of Inner Eurasia

Introduction

For those not in the know, the Tartaria conspiracy theory is one of the most bizarre pieces of pseudo history out there. Its core notion is that the region known as ‘Tartaria’ or ‘Grand Tartary’ in Early Modern European maps was not simply a vague geographical designate, but in fact a vast, centralised empire. Said empire emerged… at some point, and it disappeared… at some point, but for… some reason, its existence has been covered up to suit… some narrative or another. As you can tell, there’s a lot of diverse ideas here, and the fact that there hasn’t been the equivalent of a Christological schism every time a controversial thread goes up is really quite impressive. While this post will primarily address one particular piece of writing that is at the core of Tartaria conspiracy theorising, I’ll include a few tidbits to show you just how much madness its adherents have come up with. But first, some background.

State of Play, and why I’m doing this

The Tartaria theory has a small but active following on subreddits such as Tartaria, tartarianarchitecture, and CulturalLayer, which as of writing have around 5,300, 2,400 and 23,000 subscribers, respectively, but it’s clear from the 8 questions on the topic asked at AskHistorians since January 2019 and this debunk request from June that it’s a theory that has somewhat broad appeal and can reach beyond its core niche. This is unsurprising given how little education most people in the West receive about basically anything east of Greece: simply put, the reality of Eurasian history is just not something most of us are taught. And if we don’t know the reality of Eurasian history to begin with, or if we do then it's all in bits and pieces where we might not even know a basic set of dates and names, then what seems to be a pretty developed narrative about a lost empire actually turns out rather plausible.
Unfortunately, many debunks of the Tartaria narrative come from people pushing competing conspiracy theories, like this guy claiming that there’s a global Jewish Phoenecian conspiracy and that Tartaria is simply rehashing the notion that Khazars were Jews in order to distract from the real Phoenecian threat at the heart of global society or some nonsense like that. (I don’t really care, I died of laughter after page 3.) Now, there are those coming from serious perspectives, but they focus largely on the problems with Tartaria as a concept rather than addressing the more specific claims being made. This is of course valuable in its own right (shoutout to Kochevnik81 for their responses to the AskHistorians threads), but we can go deeper by really striking at the roots of this ‘theory’ – what is the ‘evidence’ they’re presenting? But to do that, we need to find out what the origins of the ‘theory' are, and thus what its linchpins are. Incidentally, it is because of some recent events regarding those origins that I’ve been finally prompted to write this post.

Where does it come from?

My attempts to find the exact origins of the Tartaria conspiracy have been not entirely fruitful, as the connections I’ve found have been relatively circumstantial at best. But as far as I can tell, it at least partially originates with that Russian pseudohistorian we all know and love, Anatoly Fomenko. Fomenko is perhaps best known in the English-speaking world for his 7-volume ‘epic’ from 2002, History: Fiction or Science?, but in fact he’s been pushing a complete ‘New Chronology’ since the publication of Novaia khronologia in Russian in 1995. While the New Chronology is best known for its attempt to explain away most of the Middle Ages as a hoax created by the Papacy on the basis of bad astronomy, it also asserts a number of things about Russian history from the Kievan Rus’ to the Romanovs. Key to the Tartaria theory is its claim that there was a vast Slavo-Turkic ‘Russian Horde’ based out of ‘Tartaria’ which dominated Eurasia until the last ‘Horde’ ruler, Boris Godunov, was overthrown by the European Mikhail Romanov. This, of course, is a clear attempt at countering the notion of a ‘Tatar Yoke’ over Russia, as you can’t have a ‘Tatar Yoke’ if the Tatars were Russians all along. Much as I’d like to explain that in more detail here, I don’t have to: in 2004, Konstantin Sheiko at the University of Wollongong wrote an entire PhD thesis looking at the claims of Fomenko’s New Chronology and contextualising them within currents of Russian nationalism, which can be accessed online.
But I personally suspect that if there are Fomenko connections as far as Tartaria specifically is concerned, they are limited. For one, at one stage users on the Tartaria subreddit seemed unfamiliar with Fomenko, and there are those arguing that Fomenko had ‘rewritten’ Tartarian history to be pro-Russian. This is why I said that the evidence was circumstantial. The only other link to Fomenko is indirect: the CulturalLayer sidebar lists the ‘New Chronology Resource Collection’ and the audiobook of History: Fiction or Science? under ‘Essential Resources’, and Tartaria in its ‘Related Subs’.
As far as I can tell, the ultimate origin of its developed form on the Anglophone web traces back to this post on the StolenHistory forums, posted on 17 April 2018. This makes some chronological sense: only one post on CulturalLayer that mentions Tartaria predates this. Moreover, KorbenDallas, the OP of the thread, was also the forum’s chief admin, and given that StolenHistory is still (as of writing) the top resource on CulturalLayer’s sidebar, that suggests significant influence. However, using the search function on camas.reddit.io, it was mentioned at least 9 times before then, with the first mention, on 10 January 2018, mentioning that the ‘theory’ had been doing the rounds on the Russian web for at least 5 years. Nevertheless, as the detail in these early comments is sparse and generally refers only to speculation about maps, it is probably fair to say that the first in-depth English-language formulation of the Tartaria ‘theory’ was thus the April 2018 forum post. Funnily enough, it is not cited often on Tartaria, but that subreddit was created on 27 December, long after discussion had been taking place on places like CulturalLayer, and combined with the ‘mudflood’ ‘theory’ and the notion of giant humans, which are not significant features of the StolenHistory thread. This more convoluted and multifaceted version of the Tartaria theory doesn’t really have a single-document articulation, hence me not covering it here.
It is this StolenHistory thread which I will be looking at here today. Not just because it seems to be at the heart of it all, but also because it got shut down around 36 hours ago as of writing this post, based on the timestamps of panicked ‘what happened to StolenHistory’ posts on CulturalLayer and Tartaria. So what better occasion to go back to the Wayback Machine’s version, seeing as it’s now quite literally impossible to brigade the source? Now as I’ve said, this is not the most batshit insane it gets for the Tartaria crowd, in fact it’s incredibly tame. But by the end of it, I bet you’ll be thinking ‘if this is mild, how much more worse is the modern stuff!?’ And the best part is, I can debunk most of it without recourse to any other sources at all, because so much of it involves them posting sources out of context or expecting them to be read tendentiously.
But that’s enough background. Let us begin.

Part 1: The Existence

Exhibit 1: The Encylcopædia Britannica, 1771

”Tartary, a vast country in the northern parts of Asia, bounded by Siberia on the north and west: this is called Great Tartary. The Tartars who lie south of Muscovy and Siberia, are those of Astracan, Circassia, and Dagistan, situated north-west of the Caspian-sea; the Calmuc Tartars, who lie between Siberia and the Caspian-sea; the Usbec Tartars and Moguls, who lie north of Persia and India; and lastly, those of Tibet, who lie north-west of China.” - Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. III, Edinburgh, 1771, p. 887.
Starting a post about the ‘hidden’ history of Central Asia with an encyclopædia entry from Scotland is really getting off to a good start, isn’t it? Anyone with a sense of basic geography can tell you that Tibet lies due west of China, not northwest. But more importantly, this shows you how single-minded the Tartaria advocates are and how tendentiously they read things. ‘Country’ need not actually refer to a state entity, it can just be a geographical space, especially in more archaic contexts such as this. Moreover, the ethnographic division of the ‘Tartars’ into Astrakhanis, Circassians, Dagestanis, Kalmuks, Uzbeks, and, for whatever reason, Tibetans, pretty clearly goes against the notion of a unified Tartary.
Now compare to the description given by Wikipedia, ”Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.”
Obviously, Wikipedia is not a good source for… anything, really, but the fact that they’re giving a 349-year-old encyclopaedia primacy over the summary sentence of a wiki article is demonstrative of how much dishonesty is behind this. And it only gets worse from here.

Exhibit 2: Hermann Moll’s A System of Geography, 1701

THE Country of Tartary, call'd Great Tartary, to distinguish it from the Lesser, in Europe, has for its Boundaries, on the West, the Caspian Sea, and Moscovitick Tartary; on the North, the Scythian, or Tartarian Sea; on the East, the Sea of the Kalmachites, and the Straight of Jesso; and on the South, China, India, or the Dominions of the great Mogul and Persia : So that it is apparently the largest Region of the whole Continent of Asia, extending it self [sic] farthest, both towards the North and East: In the modern Maps, it is plac'd within the 70th and 170th Degree of Longitude, excluding Muscovitick Tartary; as also between the 40 and 72 Degree of Northern Latitude.
Immediately underneath the scan of this text is the statement, clearly highlighted, that
Tartary was not a tract. It was a country.
Hmm, very emphatic there. Except wait no, the same semantic problem recurs. ‘Country’ need not mean ‘state’. Moreover, in the very same paragraph, Moll (or rather his translator) refers to Tartary as a ‘Region’, which very much disambiguates the idea. Aside from that, it is telling that Moll refers to three distinct ‘Tartaries’: ’Great Tartary’ in Asia, ‘Lesser Tartary’ in Europe, and ‘Muscovite Tartary’ – that is, the eastern territories of the Russian Tsardom. If, as they are saying, ‘Great Tartary’ was a coherent entity, whatever happened to ‘Lesser Tartary’?

Exhibit 3: A 1957 report by the CIA on ‘National Cultural Development Under Communism’

Is a conspiracy theorist… actually believing a CIA document? Yep. I’ll add some context later that further complicates the issue.
Or let us take the matter of history, which, along with religion, language and literature, constitute the core of a people’s cultural heritage. Here again the Communists have interfered in a shameless manner. For example, on 9 August 1944, the Central Committee of the Communist Party, sitting in Moscow, issued a directive ordering the party’s Tartar Provincial Committee “to proceed to a scientific revolution of the history of Tartaria, to liquidate serious shortcomings and mistakes of a nationalistic character committed by individual writers and historians in dealing with Tartar history.” In other words, Tartar history was to be rewritten—let its be frank, was to be falsified—in order to eliminate references to Great Russian aggressions and to hide the facts of the real course of Tartar-Russian relations.
[similar judgement on Soviet rewriting of histories of Muslim areas to suit a pro-Russian agenda]
What’s fascinating about the inclusion of this document is that it is apparently often invoked as a piece of anti-Fomenko evidence, by tying New Chronology in with older Russian-nationalist Soviet revisionism. So not only is it ironic that they’re citing a CIA document, of all things, but a CIA document often used to undermine the spiritual founder of the whole Tartaria ‘theory’ in the first place! But to return to the point, the fundamental issue is that it’s tendentious. This document from 1957 obviously is not going to be that informed on the dynamics of Central Asian ethnicity and history in the way that a modern scholar would be.
In a broader sense, what this document is supposed to prove is that Soviet coverups are why we don’t know about Tartaria. But if most of the evidence came from Western Europe to begin with, why would a Soviet coverup matter? Why wasn’t Tartarian history deployed as a counter-narrative during the Cold War?

Exhibit 4: ‘An 1855 Source’

This is from a footnote in Sir George Cornwalle Lewis’ An Inquiry into the Credibility of the Early Roman History, citing a travelogue by Evariste Huc that had been published in French in 1850 and was soon translated into English. From the digitised version of of Huc’s book on Project Gutenberg (emphasis copied over from the thread):
Such remains of ancient cities are of no unfrequent occurrence in the deserts of Mongolia; but everything connected with their origin and history is buried in darkness. Oh, with what sadness does such a spectacle fill the soul! The ruins of Greece, the superb remains of Egypt,—all these, it is true, tell of death; all belong to the past; yet when you gaze upon them, you know what they are; you can retrace, in memory, the revolutions which have occasioned the ruins and the decay of the country around them. Descend into the tomb, wherein was buried alive the city of Herculaneum,—you find there, it is true, a gigantic skeleton, but you have within you historical associations wherewith to galvanize it. But of these old abandoned cities of Tartary, not a tradition remains; they are tombs without an epitaph, amid solitude and silence, uninterrupted except when the wandering Tartars halt, for a while, within the ruined enclosures, because there the pastures are richer and more abundant.
There’s a paraphrase from Lewis as well, but you can just read it on the thread. The key thing here is that yes, there were abandoned settlements in the steppe. Why must this be indicative of a lost sedentary civilisation, and not instead the remnants of political capitals of steppe federations which were abandoned following those federations’ collapse? Places like Karakorum, Kubak Zar, Almaliq and Sarai were principally built around political functions, being centres for concentration of religious and ritual authority (especially monasteries) and stores of non-movable (or difficult to move) wealth. But individual examples of abandoned settlements are not evidence of broad patterns of settlement that came to be abandoned en masse. Indeed, the very fact that the cited shepherd calls the abandoned location ‘The Old Town’ in the singular implies just how uncommon such sites were – for any given region, there might really only be one of note.

Exhibit 5: Ethnic characteristics in artistic depictions of Chinggis and Timur

I… don’t quite know what to make of these.
Today, we have certain appearance related stereotypes. I think we are very much off there. It looks like Tartary was multi-religious, and multi-cultural. One of the reasons I think so is the tremendous disparity between what leaders like Genghis Khan, Batu Khan, Timur aka Tamerlane looked like to the contemporary artists vs. the appearance attributed to them today.
Ummm, what?
These are apparently what they look like today. These are ‘contemporary’ depictions of Chinggis:
Except, as the guy posting the thread says, these are 15th-18th century depictions… so NOT CONTEMPORARY.
As for Timur, we have:
In what bizzaro world are these contemporary?
We’ll get to Batur Khan in a moment because that’s its own kettle of worms. But can this user not recognise that artists tend to depict things in ways that are familiar? Of course white European depictions of Chinggis and Timur will tend to make them look like white Europeans, while East Asian depictions of Chinggis will tend to make him look Asian, and Middle Eastern depictions of Chinggis and Timur will make them look Middle Eastern. This doesn’t prove that ‘Tartaria’ was multicultural, in fact it you’d have an easier time using this ‘evidence’ to argue that Chinggis and Timur were shapeshifters who could change ethnicities at will!

Exhibit 6: Turkish sculptures

Why this person thinks modern Turkish sculptures are of any use to anyone baffles me. The seven sculptures shown are of Batu Khan (founder of the ‘Golden Horde’/Jochid khanates), Timur, Bumin (founder of the First Turkic Khaganate), Ertugrul (father of Osman, the founder of the Ottoman empire), Babur (founder of the Mughal Empire), Attila the Hun, and Kutlug Bilge Khagan (founder of the Uyghur Khaganate). They are accompanied (except in the case of Ertugrul) by the dates of the empires/confederations that they founded – hence, for instance, Babur’s dates being 1526 to 1858, the lifespan of the Mughal Empire, or Timur’s being 1368 (which seems arbitrary) to 1507 (the fall of Herat to the Shaybanids). To quote the thread:
A few of them I do not know, but the ones I do look nothing like what I was taught at school. Also dates are super bizarre on those plaques.
Again, Turkish sculptors make Turkic people look like Turks. Big surprise. And the dates are comprehensible if you just take a moment to think.
Do Turks know something we don't?
Turkish, evidently.

Exhibit 7: A map from 1652 that the user can’t even read

The other reason why I think Tartary had to be multi-religious, and multi-cultural is its vastness during various moments in time. For example in 1652 Tartary appears to have control over the North America.
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1652-nova-totius-terrarum-orbis-geographica-ac-hydrographica-tabula_1-1-jpg.37277/
This speaks for itself.
The thread was later edited to include a link to a post on ‘Tartarians’ in North America made on 7 August 2018, but that’s beside the point here, read at your own leisure (if you can call it ‘leisure’). Except for the part where at one point he admits he can’t read Latin, and so his entire theory in that post is based on the appearance of the word ‘Tartarorum’ in an unspecified context on a map of North America.

Part 2: The Coverup

The official history is hiding a major world power which existed as late as the 19th century. Tartary was a country with its own flag, its own government and its own place on the map. Its territory was huge, but somehow quietly incorporated into Russia, and some other countries. This country you can find on the maps predating the second half of the 19th century.
…Okay then.

Exhibit 8: Google Ngrams

https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_ngram-jpg.37276/
This screenshot shows that the use of ‘Tartary’ and ‘Tartaria’ declined significantly over time. This is apparently supposed to surprise us. Or maybe it shows that we actually understand the region better…

Part 1a: Back to the existence

You know, a common theme with historical conspiracy theories is how badly they’re laid out, in the literal sense of the layout of their documents and video content. Don’t make a header called ‘The Coverup’ and then only have one thing before jumping back to the evidence for the existence again.

Exhibit 9: A Table

Yet, some time in the 18th century Tartary Muskovite was the biggest country in the world: 3,050,000 square miles.
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_huge-13-jpg.37329/
I do not have enough palms to slap into my face. Do they not understand that this is saying how much of Tartary was owned… by foreign powers?

Exhibit 10: Book covers

You can look at the images on the thread itself but here’s a few highlights:
Histories of the Qing conquest of China, because as far as Europeans were concerned the Manchus were Tartars. Proof of Tartaria because…?
An ambassador who never set foot in ‘Tartary’ itself, cool cool, very good evidence there.
There’s also three screenshots from books that aren’t even specifically named, so impossible to follow up. Clearly this is all we need.

Exhibit 11: Maps

The maps are the key think the Tartaria pushers use. All these maps showing ‘Grand Tartary’ or ‘Tartaria’ or what have you. There’s 20 of these here and you can look for yourselves, but the key thing is: why do these people assume that this referred to a single state entity? Because any of these maps that include the world more generally will also present large parts of Africa in generic terms, irrespective of actual political organisation in these regions. And many of the later maps clearly show the tripartite division of the region into ‘Chinese Tartary’, ‘Russian Tartary’, and ‘Independent Tartary’, which you think would be clear evidence that most of this region was controlled by, well, the Chinese (really, the Manchus) and the Russians. And many of these maps aren’t even maps of political organisation, but geographical space. See how many lump all of mainland Southeast Asia into ‘India’. Moreover, the poor quality of the mapping should give things away. This one for instance is very clear on the Black Sea coast, but the Caspian is a blob, and moreover, a blob that’s elongated along the wrong axis! They’re using Western European maps as an indicator of Central Asian realities in the most inept way possible, and it would be sad if it weren’t so hilarious. The fact that the depictions of the size of Tartaria are incredibly inconsistent also seems not to matter.

Exhibit 12: The Tartarian Language

There’s an 1849 American newspaper article referring to the ‘Tartarian’ language, which is very useful thank you, and definitely not more reflective of American ignorance than actual linguistic reality.
The next one is more interesting, because it’s from a translation of some writing by a French Jesuit, referring to the writing of Manchu, and who asserted (with very little clear evidence) that it could be read in any direction. In April last year, Tartaria users [claimed to have stumbled on a dictionary of Tartarian and French](np.reddit.com/Tartaria/comments/bi3aph/tartarian_language_dictionary/) called the Dictionnaire Tartare-Mantchou-François. What they failed to realise is that the French generally called the Manchus ‘Tartare-Mantchou’, and this was in fact a Manchu-French dictionary. In other words, a [Tartare-Mantchou]-[François] dictionary, not a [Tartare]-[Mantchou]-[François] dictionary. It is quite plausible, in fact probable, that the ‘Tartarian’ referred to in the newspaper article was Manchu.

Exhibit 13: Genealogies of Tartarian Kings

Descended From Genghiscan
Reads the comment above this French chart. How the actual hell did OP not recognise that ‘Genghiscan’ is, erm, Genghis Khan? Is it that hard to understand that maybe, just maybe, ‘Tartars’ was what they called Mongols back in the day, and ‘Tartaria’ the Mongol empire and its remnants?

Exhibit 14: Ethnographic drawings

These prove that there were people called Tartars, not that there was a state of Tartaria. NEXT

Exhibit 15: Tartaria’s alleged flag

Images they provide include
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_flags-11-jpg.37367/
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_flag_6-jpg.37307/
Except there’s one problem. As any EU4 player will tell you, that’s the flag of the Khanate of Kazan. And while they can trot out a few 18th and 19th century charts showing the apparent existence of a Tartarian naval flag, the inconvenient fact that Tartaria would have been landlocked seems not to get in the way. To be sure, their consistent inclusion is odd, given the non-existence of Tartary as a country, and moreover its landlocked status. It seems plausible that the consistent similarity of the designs is just a result of constant copying and poor checking, but on its own it means relatively little.

Exhibit 16: 19th-century racism

https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/flags_of_all_nations_1865-mongolian-1-jpg.37369/
That I think speaks for itself.

Exhibit 17: Flags of Moscow on one particular chart

It is also worth mentioning that in the British Flag Table of 1783, there are three different flags listed as a flag of the Tsar of Moscow. There is also an Imperial Flag of Russia as well as multiple naval flags. And all of them are proceeded by a flag of the Viceroy of Russia.
By that logic, the Royal Navy ran Britain because the Royal Navy ensigns precede the Union Jack. It’s simply a conscious decision to show the flags of individuals before the flags of states. The ‘Viceroy’ (unsure what the original Russian title would be) and ‘Czar’ of Muscovy would presumably be, well, the Emperor of Russia anyway, so as with the British section where the Royal Standard and the flags of naval officers came first, the same seems true of Russia. Also, as a side note, the placement of the USA at the end, after the Persians, the Mughals and ‘Tartarians’, is a fun touch.
Significance of the Viceroy is in the definition of the term. A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. Our official history will probably say that it was the Tsar of Russia who would appoint a viceroy of Moscow. I have reasons to doubt that.
Why is the flag of the Viceroy of Moscow positioned prior to any other Russian flag? Could it be that the Viceroy of Moscow was superior to its Czar, and was "supervising" how this Tartarian possession was being run?
No.

Part 3: 1812

This, this is where it gets really bonkers. A key part of this post is arguing that Napoleon’s invasion of Russia was a cover story for a joint invasion against Tartaria gone horrendously wrong. All the stops are being pulled out here.
There is a growing opinion in Russia that French invasion of Russia played out according to a different scenario. The one where Tsar Alexander I, and Napoleon were on the same side. Together they fought against Tartary. Essentially France and Saint Petersburg against Moscow (Tartary). And there is a strong circumstantial evidence to support such a theory.
Oh yes, we’re going there.
Questions to Answer:
1. Saint Petersburg was the capitol of Russia. Yet Napoleon chose to attack Moscow. Why?
He didn’t, he was trying to attack the Russian army. (credit to dandan_noodles).
2. It appears that in 1912 there was a totally different recollection of the events of 1812. How else could you explain commemorative 1912 medals honoring Napoleon?
Because it’s a bit of an in-your-face to Napoleon for losing so badly?
And specifically the one with Alexander I, and Napoleon on the same medal. The below medal says something similar to, "Strength is in the unity: will of God, firmness of royalty, love for homeland and people"
Yeah, it’s showing Alexander I beating Napoleon, and a triumphant double-headed Russian eagle above captured French standards. Also, notice how Alexander is in full regalia, while Napoleon’s is covered up by his greatcoat?
3. Similarity between Russian and French uniforms. There are more different uniforms involved, but the idea remains, they were ridiculously similar.
Ah yes, because fashions in different countries always develop separately, and never get influenced by each other.
How did they fight each other in the dark?
With difficulty, presumably.
Basically, he’s saying that this: https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1_rus-jpg.37322/
Is too similar to this: https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1_rus-jpg.37322/
To be coincidental.
OK, whatever. Here’s where it gets interesting:
There was one additional combat asset officially available to Russians in the war of 1812. And that was the Militia. It does appear that this so-called Militia, was in reality the army of Tartary fighting against Napoleon and Alexander I.
Russian VolunteeMilitia Units... Tartarians?
Clearly this man has never encountered the concept of a cossack, an opelchenie, or, erm, a GREATCOAT.
4. Russian nobility in Saint Petersburg spoke French well into the second half of the 19th century. The general explanation was, that it was the trend of time and fashion. Google contains multiple opinions on the matter. * Following the same logic, USA, Britain and Russia should've picked up German after the victory in WW2.
Clearly never heard of the term lingua franca then.
5. This one I just ran into: 19th-century fans were totally into a Napoleon/Alexander romance
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/treaties_of_tilsit_miniature_-france-_1810s-_side_a-jpg.37314/
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/napoleonxalexander2-jpg.37310/
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/napoleon-alexander-jpg.37312/
It is true that after the Treaty of Tilsit, Napoleon wrote to his wife, Josephine, that
I am pleased with [Emperor] Alexander; he ought to be with me. If he were a woman, I think I should make him my mistress.
But Napoleon’s ‘honeymoon period’ with Russia following the Treaty of Tilsit should not be seen as indicative of a permanent Napoleonic affection for Russia. Notably, Napoleon’s war with Russia didn’t just end in 1812. How are the Tartaria conspiracists going to explain the War of the Sixth Coalition, when Russian, Prussian and Austrian troops drove the French out of Germany? Did the bromance suddenly stop because of 1812? Or, is it more reasonable to see 1812 as the end result of the bromance falling apart?

Conclusions

So there you have it, Tartaria in all its glorious nonsensicalness. Words cannot capture how massively bonkers this entire thing is. And best of all, I hardly needed my own sources because so much of it is just a demonstration of terrible reading comprehension. Still, if you want to actually learn about some of the history of Inner Eurasia, see below:

Bibliography

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2020.08.19 02:17 ArthurDrakoni Review: The Years of Rice and Salt by Kim Stanley Robinson

This review was first published on my blog, but I am reprinting it here per the subreddit rules.
2019 was a year where I got to experience a lot of alternate history books in audio form for the first time. It was also, like 2018 before it, a year where I finally got around to listening to several alternate history I'd been meaning to get around to. Case in point, the book we'll be reviewing today. We're taking a look at the classic alternate history novel The Years of Rice and Salt by Kim Stanley Robinson .
The Years of Rice and Salt takes places in a world where the Black Death killed ninety-nine percent of Europe's population. The story follows six or seven individuals, though three in particular, as they are reincarnated over the ages. Robinson makes it easy by having their names start with the same letter. The main characters we follow having names starting in K, B, and I. Secondary characters have names with Z, P, and S. The novel spans hundreds of years of history, and spans numerous nations, giving it a truly global feel to it.
The novel is divided into ten segments of varying lengths, and I will discuss each of them individually. For now, I will give some overall thoughts. I'd been putting off listening to this one, but I'm glad I finally got around to it. I absolutely loved this book. I loved its vast global scope, and how it features nations and cultures you don't often see in alternate history. I also loved the use of reincarnation as a plot device. It was certainly an interesting twist I haven't really seen in too many other alternate history novels. The story uses the Islamic Hegira Calendar for dates. The Islamic year 1 being when Mohammad felid Mecca for Medina in 622 AD. However, I've rendered the dates in the Gregorian Calendar for convenience sake. There's a ton of historical and cultural references throughout the novel. You don't necessarily have to catch them to enjoy the novel, but it adds to the experience. Thankfully, the Kim Stanley Robinson website has this handy reading guide that catalogs and explains them all.
Well, enough of all that, lets dive in.
Our first segment is titled "Awake into Emptiness." It takes place from 1381-1424. It follows a Mongol warrior named Bold who is serving in the army of Timur. Timur has sent Bold to scout ahead into the Hungarian Basin. Bold find a land almost totally devoid of humans. Bold travels through the depopulated Balkans until he is captured and sold into slavery by Arab slavers. During his time aboard a slave ship he meets an African slave named Kyu. As the ship makes its way to China, Kyu and Bold discover that their lives are destined to be intertwined.
This segment sets things up for the rest of the novel. The descriptions of the depopulated Europe were evocative and haunting. There are multiple mentions of cathedrals being only partially built because everyone died in the middle of construction. Medieval cathedrals took decades, if not centuries, to be fully constructed. Often, those who began work on the cathedrals would do so knowing that they would not live to see them completed.
There's a particularly sad scene where Bold encounters the sole European in all of his travels. The man can't speak any of the languages Bold know, but he gets his point across with gestures. He was just a fisherman, and was out fishing when the plague hit. He came back to find everyone, including his wife and children, dead. Now he's all alone, and due to the language barrier, Bold isn't much company. They share food and camp together, but the very next day the man is gone. His footsteps lead to the riverbank, which strongly suggests he might have committed suicide out of despair. What would it be like, I wonder, to be like the lone European? What thoughts would go through one’s head as the sole survive of a once prosperous village? To know that you might be alone forever? Chilling stuff indeed.
Bold and Kyu eventually get sold to the admiral Zhang He. He was the commander of the Ming Dynasty's fleet of treasure ships. They were massive ships that traveled everywhere from the South China Sea, to India, and even East Africa. The goal was to proclaim China's power and influence to the world, and to collect tribute. Zhang He is a staple in alternate histories about China colonizing the New World. Ironically, that doesn't happen in this book til after Zhang He. We'll talk more about that in a bit. We also get a frighteningly detailed explain of how eunuchs, of which Zhang He was one, are made.
Another significant aspect of "Awake into Emptiness" is how it sets up the character meeting in the Bardo at the end of each segment. The Bardo is an afterlife of sorts in Tibetan Buddhism. It is where souls go as they wait to be judged and then reborn. I should probably go over the difference between reincarnation in Hinduism and Buddhism. Hindu reincarnation is like water being passed from one cup to another; your outside changes, but the essence of who you are stays the same. Buddhist reincarnation is more like one candle passing its flame to another; there is a deep connection between you and your reincarnations, but they are ultimately different people. Tibetan Buddhism differs in that it is a bit more like the Hindu view of reincarnation.
The character we meet in The Years of Rice and Salt were part of a Jati in Tibet that got killed in an avalanche. A Jati is type of village or community; sometimes it can also mean clan or group of that nature. Throughout the book the Jati constantly find each other, often without meaning too, across their reincarnations. East Asian cultures, and other Asian cultures to an extent, place emphasis on finding your place within the web of other's lives. The part of this section that muse about the nature of reincarnation and Buddhism have an almost poetic quality to them. There's also some parts that end with "but if you want to know what happens next, read the next part." This is a nod to the classic Chinese novel Journey to the West.
The second segment is titled "The Haj in the Heart." The bulk is set in the 1560. It begins in India with two sisters named Kokila and Bihari. Life is mostly good, and they get married. Then Bihari dies in childbirth, and Kokila poisons their husbands, for which she is executed. Kokila is then reincarnated as a tiger named Kya, who is also killed, but not before she saves a wandering Sufi mystic named Bistami. While on a Hadj to Mecca, Bistami hears of a caravan in North Africa heading to the depopulated land of Al-Andalus. The caravan is led by the charismatic sultan Mawji Darya, and his beautiful wife Katima. Bistami finds himself drawn to Katima, almost as though he knows her from somewhere.
This is the only time, barring the last segment, our characters get reincarnated multiple times in one segment. Bistami at one point finds himself in the court of Emperor Akbar. He was a real ruler of the Mughal Empire. It was an off-shoot of the Mongol Empire established by Central Asian Mongols who settled in Northern India. Akbar was a Muslim, but promoted religious tolerance and understanding. He often held meetings with representatives of the different religions within his empire. Unfortunately, subsequent Mughal rulers didn't share his open-mindedness.
I previously mentioned the poetic nature of this book, and it's true in this segment as well. There is a particularly great scene where Bistami visits the tomb of a great Sufi mystic. He undergoes a religious experience and has visions, including of his past lives. The poetic nature, combined with the musings on the nature of reality, reminds me of The Man in the High Castle, another of my favorite alternate history novels. I should probably talk about Sufism. Sufism is a type of Islamic mysticism. They tend to be a bit more peaceful and less politically inclined than Sunni and Shia Islam. Most Sunnis and Shias, the two main branches of Islam, do not like Sufis very much, and don't consider them real Muslims. If you've ever heard of the Whirling Dervishes, those are Sufis. The Medieval Iranian poet Rumi is another famous Sufi.
It does make sense that the Beber, or Amazigh, as they call themselves, were first to resettle Europe. Towards the end of its history Al-Andalus was ruled by several BebeAmazigh dynasties such as the Almoravids and Almohads. I also liked that the alternate Black Death hit all of Europe, not just the Christian bits. Al-Andalus, and the Muslim settlements in the Balkans, were just as depopulated as the rest of Europe. It made it feel a bit more realistic. Granted, having ninety-nine percent of Europe be whipped out wasn't that realistic, but it is a thing I'm willing to accept for the premise of the novel. Amusingly, even the characters discuss how odd it is that Europe was totally whipped out.
Katima and her caravan are shown to be more open-minded and liberal than most Muslims. This is partially because they follow Sufism, but also because they are Berber. Traditionally, most Berber women have not worn the hijab, and woman have play major roles in Berber life. The caravan eventually moves further north and founds a settlement at the former site of Bayonne, France. They name their settlement Baraka. Katima's husband dies, but there's no precedent for women ruling on their own in Islam. In fact, the Hadith even forbids it.
Thus, Bistami and Katima declare that those Hadith's don't matter and forge their own. Granted, there's some precedence to this. Muslims believe that the Hadith is less authoritative than the Koran, but still important. Several Muslim women, in places such as West Africa and America, choose to ignore the Hadith to justify not wearing the hijab. The closest the Koran comes is saying that women must cover their breasts. Throughout the book there is a theme of trying to reconcile Islam with women's rights, and secular liberalism in general. The Sufis, and those like them, are trying to establish a light in the darkness, but these lights can easily be snuffed out. Case in point, more conservative Muslims from Al-Andalus come to overthrow Katima, forcing everyone to flee further north to Nantes. They name this new settlement Nsara.
Interestingly, when everyone arrives in the Bardo they perceive it as being similar to the Islamic afterlife. Does the Bardo appear different to everyone? They do seem to realize that it isn't the Islamic afterlife, and do start to remember their past lives before getting reincarnated. We'll talk more about all that in just a minute.
The third segment is titled "Ocean Continents." It takes place in the 1620s. Japan has been a thorn in China's side for centuries. The emperor orders a huge fleet of ships to conquer the island nation. However, a few ships get blown across the Pacific and discover two previously unknown continents. The section follows the crew as they explore this brave new world.
This is the part where China finally discovers the Americas. Overall, I did enjoy this segment, but the novel does show its age in places. When the Chinese first arrive, they meet the Miwok people of Northern California. The Miwok are overall portrayed well, even if it occasionally dips into "paint with all the colors of the wind" territory. The narration mentions how the natives barely use the land, and how everything is pristine. We now know that Native Americans played a big role in cultivating land, and played a major role in shaping North America's ecosystem. They just did so in a way that wasn't always recognizable to the Europeans. In fairness a lot of this scholarship has only come on in the last decade or so. Robinson wouldn't have had access to it.
The bigger issue is when the Chinese arrive in the Aztec Empire. At first, it looked like we might get a nuanced look at the Aztecs. They performed human sacrifice, but they did so because they believed it was necessary to thank the gods for giving them the world. Those chosen as sacrifices lives like kings in the year leading up to the sacrifice. They were also one of the few societies to give mandatory education for both men and women. I was hoping we'd see all this, but Robinson fell onto the lazy stereotype of the Aztecs as bloodthirsty barbarians. It got even worse when one of the Chinese fired a gun, and the Aztecs ran around like chickens with their heads chopped off. There is a reference to something this is claimed to have happened when Pizarro conquered the Inca. The problem being that there is no historical evidence that the Inca trampled each other to death when Pizarro fired his gun. It is likely a fabrication by post-conquest chroniclers.
Anyway, when we get to the Bardo we see that it is falling under the sway of the Chinese celestial bureaucracy. Does that mean Chinese Mythology is real too? Overall, not a terrible segment, but could have been better.
The fourth segment is titled "The Alchemist." It takes place in the Khanate of Samarkand in the 1640s. It follows three alchemists named Bahram, Khalid, and Iwang. The start off performing experiments to turn lead into gold. However, they soon start making discoveries that will overturn all pervious knowledge. The age of alchemy is over, and the age of science has begun.
I've always loved the history of science, so this segment was pretty fun for me. The characters make discoveries in all sorts of fields, but the Khan is only interested in military applications. There's a particularly amusing scene where Khalid complains about Sufis being a inch of hippies with their heads in the clouds. He's blissfully unaware that he was a Sufi in a past life. Another scene mentions that Armenia is a Muslim nation. That's particularly odd given that pervious segments mentioned them, along with Georgia and Ethiopia, as one of the few Christian nations that avoid the plague. There's also mention of small communities of Christians in Egypt and the Maghreb. The characters do speculate that the Armenians might be faking it to get better trade deals, but it is still odd. Samarkand in our world had some very famous universities, with some very impressive mosaics. All in all, another great segment.
The fifth segment is called "The Warp and the Weft." It takes place in North America and follows a ronin named Busho, but his friends know him as Fromwest. He is severing as a guest to the Haudenosaunee people, and tells of how his homeland was invaded by China. Busho must convince the Haudenosaunee, and the scattered tribes to North America, to unite and modernize so they can resist colonization from the Chinese and Muslims.
Overall, I thought that Robinson did a much better with his depiction of the Native Americans here. The Haudenosaunee people are more commonly known as the Iroquois. They are nation originally made of the five tribes: the Seneca, Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Oneida. In 1722 they welcomed the Tuscarora tribe to the nation. Interestingly, this segment mentions that the Haudenosaunee have expanded to nine tribes. Just who are these additional tribes? The Native Americans were exposed more gradually to Old World diseases than in our world. They've had more time to recover their population. This does give them more of fighting chance than the Native Americans did in our world. Still I can't help but feel that the fate is the Haudenosaunee is just a tad optimistic. Granted, they've got Busho to help them.
Perhaps it is optimistic, but I'm willing to take it. I've always wished alternate history featured the Native Americans more. I've also been fascinated at the idea of Native Americans successfully resisting colonialism. From what we hear, the Chinese invasion of Japan was incredibly harsh. There was no divine wind to save the Japanese this time. Busho wonders if the gods were made because of the Muslim missionaries in Nagasaki. It's a sly joke, because around the same time in our world, Christian missionaries were in Nagasaki. In fact, Nagasaki and Hiroshima were the two biggest Christian settlements in Japan. I wonder if the souls that would have been those missionaries got reincarnated as Muslims?
The Bardo segment is also interesting. The Jati try to resist drinking the elixir of forgetfulness to try to retain the memories in their next lives, and find each other.
The sixth segment is titled "Widow Kang." It takes place in South China in the 18th century. The widow Kang Tongbi has been plagued by strange dreams and strange happenings. She speaks in strange foreign languages, and finds herself draw to the Buddhist monk Bao Ssu and the Muslim scholar Ibrahim ibn Hasam al-Lanzhou. It's almost as though she knows them from somewhere before.
The parallelism was very strong in this story. At times it almost felt more like straight-up historical fiction rather than alternate history. The Machu overthrew the Ming Dynasty, thus establishing the Qing Dynasty, just as in our world. There's also a hysteria over supposed queue cutting, just as in our world. Queues are long braided ponytails the Manchu pushed upon the Han Chinese. The Han weren't required to adopt Manchu clothing and hairstyles, but the Manchu put indirect pressure on them to do so. There were also numerous instances of anti-Muslim persecution carried out during the Qing Dynasty. Yeah, if the goal of the novel was to speculate about a world without Europe, this was not one of its better moments.
Now, I must be fair here. Robinson utilizes a more leftist view of history that emphasizes intangible forces of history over individual choice. Additionally, there the wrinkle of people being reincarnated. Reincarnation might account for why this world had a Renaissance so similar to our world. Presumably, the Europeans got reincarnated too. Perhaps the Manchu were destined to overthrow the Ming Dynasty. It's interesting to speculate, but let's get back to the story.
Kang eventually marries Ibrahim after he helps her with some hypnosis exercises. They work together on try to find a way to reconcile Islam with Buddhism, and Chinese culture in general. There one scene where Kang disparages Islam for the way Muslim women are treated. Ibrahim point that Chinese women don't have it much better. Kang concedes that women have it pretty bad all the world over. Kang also takes to collecting poems and mantras. Her favorite? It has to do with rice and salt. There's also an amusing scene where, when discussing the possibility of past lives, Kang insists that she's always been Chinese. By this point, we know she's also been African, Berber, Muslim, Indian, Iroquois, and even a tiger.
It seems that Ibrahim, a few other Muslims, believe in reincarnation. In our world, there are some Muslims who believe this, but they are fringe groups, and don't represent mainstream Islamic thought. Granted, with the changes to history, maybe their beliefs became mainstream. I just loved Kang and Ibrahim's constant back-and-forth. They argue, but they also clearly care about each other. We also hear that many Sufi settlements have gotten crushed by Wahhabis. They're a brand of ultra-conservative Islam; Saudi Arabia is run by them. Sadly, this isn't too dissimilar to what happened in our world. Attempts to reform Islam pretty much always ended badly.
Our seventh segment is titled "The Great Age of Progress." It takes place from 1829-1864. The Ottoman Empire has long thought of itself as invincible. That all changes when they get into a war with the League of Travancore; an alliance of states in India. Travancore is a land of mechanical wonders and scientific advancement. The segment follows an Ottoman doctor named Ismail as he is taken to Travancore to experience these wonders firsthand.
Well, this certainly made up for the parallelism of the last segment. I love seeing industrial revolution alternate histories in non-Western nations. I also like that Travancore is an alliance of Indian states rather than a single nation. India is just as ethnically and culturally diverse as Europe, after all. The scene where Travancore invades Konstantiniyye is an ironic echo of the Ottoman's sack of Constantinople in 1453 AD. Of course, this time the Ottomans are in the role of the Byzantines. Wouldn't it be ironic if they were the Byzantines reincarnated? We also see that the Haudenosaunee League is an ally of Travancore, and are doing quite well for themselves. Several Buddhist monasteries have also become centers of science and learning. Buddhism originated in India, but faded away due to the actions of Brahmins, that is, Hindu priests. They knew they had to try to discredit Buddhism, or they'd be standing in the unemployment line. It is fitting that Buddhism has returned to the place of its birth here.
We also find out that some European survived in the Orkney, Shetland, and Faroe Islands. A few also managed to survive in England. Unfortunately, the Ottomans prized these surviving English for their exotic beauty. The Ottomans made a point of keeping the English members of their harams ethnically pure. Eventually, this resulted in some pretty nasty inbreeding. Yeah, those poor English would have been better off if the plague had taken their ancestors.
We skip ahead a bit where Ismail is serving as Tranvancore's ambassador to Yingzhou. It's China's colony on the west coast of North America. We discover that the Japanese people and culture have survived in spite of China's efforts to whip them out. There's even a strong underground resistance movement brewing in Yingzhou. There's mention of flood occurring in California, and interestingly enough, there was indeed a flood in California around the time this segment is set.
The eight segment is titled "War of the Asuras." It is set in the 1950s. Tension between China and Dar-Al-Islam have been brewing for years. Now they've finally boiled over into an all-out war. In time, this war will be known as the Long War. The segment follows three Chinese solders named Bai, Kuo, and Iwa.
This segment was maybe not my favorite, but all the same, not terrible. The Long War can best be described as World War I leading directly into World War II with no break in-between. The Long War lasted sixty-seven years in total. The war is so intense that our character beginning to lose their grasp on reality. Also, apparently the Muslims blew-up the top of Mount Everest so that K2, a mountain in Afghanistan, would be the tallest mountain in the world. There was no real point to this, and it probably didn't affect Chinese moral very much. It probably also wasted time and resources for the Muslims, and seemed more petty than anything. On a brighter note, Japan has used the chaos of the war to regain their independence.
The ninth segment is titled "Nsara." It takes place from 1999-2002. Budur Radwan is a young woman living in the United Alpine Emirates. She longs to be free and independent like her aunt Idelba, who works as a physicist in Nsara. Budur decides to seek on a train bound for the great Sufi city. She finds Nsara to be a land of wonders, and is drawn to the study of history and archeology by one of the city's madrasahs. Life is good, but the effects of the Long War still linger. How long can this temporary peace truly last?
This segment gets fairly metafictional as Budur and her classmates discuss the nature of history. They even speculate on how things might have gone had history turned out differently. One of the class's first projects is considering women's role in history, particularly as it relates to Islam. Their professor Kirana Fawwaz is convinced that it is possible to reconcile Islam with feminism if you throw out the Hadith. She even claims Mohammad was a feminist. Yeah...she must be using a different translation of the Koran, because everything I've read of the Koran paints a rather unflattering picture of the prophet. Feminist is...not a word I'd use to describe him. For example, he once ordered a village of Jews to be put to death for refusing to convert to Islam. Then there's the whole marrying an underage girl and consummating the marriage with her thing. There's a little old lady in the class who says that religion has brought nothing but suffering to people, especially women, and should be done away with. Well, I guess I know what happened to the soul that would have become me.
As someone with a history degree, I can attest that many of the conversations Budur and her classmates have are quite accurate. There would certainly be even more archeological sites in Europe than there already ate in our world. We even get to briefly see some surviving Native Europeans in the Orkney, Shetland and Faroe Islands. They're under the watchful eye of the Haudenosaunee. So we've got Native Americans overseeing what is, essentially, a European reservation. Oh how the tables have turned. One of Budur's friends is named Tristan, and he makes music based on that of Medieval Europe. Strange that more isn't made of his status as one of the only ethnic Europeans we meet. Unless his name isn't really Tristan, and he's the Years of Rice and Salt version of a weeaboo, but with European culture rather than Japanese.
I probably should have mentioned before that the Muslims renamed Europe as Firanja. Well, the Middle Eastern and North African ones did. The Central Asian one's call it Firanjistan. Most of Western Firanja speaks a language that, while similar to Arabic and Berber, is unique to Firanja. Though Skandistan speaks a separate language related to the Turkic languages of Central Asia. Firanja was placed under heavy reparations following the Long War. The terms also forced them to allow Buddhist monasteries to be established in their cities. I guess it makes a sort of sense that Muslim madrasahs and Buddhist monasteries became centers of learning. In our world, many universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge, started off as places to train/educate Christian clergy.
Budur travels to a science conference in Iran to help deliver a message to her aunt's colleges. Specifically, about the potential to split an atom, and create new bombs. This is presented as something that the world must not know of, but I'm not sure about that. Mutually Assured Destruction, and thus deterrence, could have saved quite a few lives during the Long War. From what we hear, it got so bad that women and children got drafted. On the other hand, Dar-Al-Islam does seem just crazy enough to push the button. Don't forget what they did to Mount Everest. On a happier note, we do see that the Buddhist monasteries are making bricks to rebuild the summit of Mount Everest.
Budur also attends an archeology conference. One of the presentations is of a village in Tibet that got caught in an avalanche. It is the very village the sent the Jati on their journey across the ages. I also liked how the Middle East is called the Middle West, as a nod to how Sinocentric this world is. There's mention of scientists wanting to create a new calendar, with the date of their meeting being year one. Something similar happened in our world, but the Apollo 11 mission was used as the year one.
Post-war Firanja bares more than a passing resemblance to Germany during the Weimar Republic. It is mentioned that the Sultanate of Rum has experienced particularly bad hyperinflation. As the segment progresses, there's increasing political turmoil, and many radicals begin to blame mi routines such as Christians, Jews, and Armenians for Firanja losing the Long War. There's mention here, and in several other segments of a people called Zotts. Apparently, that's the Arabic word for Gypsies/Romani. With all the political chaos brewing, it's a good thing the Haudenosaunee keep a military presence in Firanja.
It would seem the Sufis' efforts weren't in vain after all. Nsara appears to be a liberal modern city. And yet it is also mentioned that several parts of Firanja, such as the United Alpine Emirates and Skandistan, are rather conservative. It goes back to the theme of trying to reconcile Islam with liberalism, pluralism, and multiculturalism. Quite forward thinking for a book published in 2002. Personally, I'm not sure it's really possible. Of course, I'm not sure any religion can truly be reformed. Better to discard them and find our truths and meanings in something more solid and rational.
Our final segment is titled "First Years." It takes place from 2030-2088. The segment follows a Chinese man named Bao Xinhua throughout his life. He participates in a democratic-ish/socialist-ish movement lead by the Chinese-Japanese philosopher Zhu Isao. We then follow him as he is assigned to a diplomatic post in Burma, gets married, and then moves to Yingzhou and becomes a history teacher.
I know that doesn't sound very exciting, but I promise this is a good segment. It appears that, despite winning the Long War, China wasn't much better off than Firanja. Of course, it was less than China won and more that Dar-Al-Islam lost. It might seem a little odd that the book doesn't really give as much attention to the social revolution China experienced, but it makes a sort of sense. The wheel symbol is very important in Buddhism and religions like it. It symbolizes reincarnation, rebirth, and the cycle of ages. As you get closer to the center, the arc of the wheel gets smaller. So there's that, or perhaps Kim Stanley Robinson felt that, much like this review, the book had gone on for long enough and it was time to wrap things up. The revolution has aspects of socialist movements, but the philosophy behind it is very much a product of the world of The Years of Rice and Salt.
The real winners of the Long War seem to be the Travancore and Haudenosaunee leagues. Though there were times where the characters referenced Yingzhou as though it comprised all of North America. From what I've gathered, Yingzhou seems to refer to China's colonies in America, and North America as a whole. Sort of like how America can mean either the Untied States, or the Americas as a whole. Similarly, Inka seems to be South America as a whole, and the Inka Empire. Anyway, there certainly does appear to be a growing sense of multiculturalism, pluralism, and international cooperation. All things that are founding principles of Travancore and the Haudenosaunee. In general, though not completely without flaws, the world does seem to have become a more peaceful place. There's also reference to a United Nations analogue called the League of All Nations.
Based on what we've seen both here and in the previous segment, it seems that this world is less technologically advanced than ours. Airships are the primary civilian aircraft, and there doesn't seem to be much mention of any nation having a space program. There's also not really any mention of television, movies, or computers. Granted, maybe the characters we follow don't watch much TV, or go to the movies very often. Still, the lack of computers and the Internet is pretty notable. It also a shame that, throughout the book, we never really get to see what sub-Saharan Africa is like. How did they evolve in a world without European colonialism?
It's mentioned that places, such as much of Firanja and Inka, still suffer from widespread poverty, but on the flip side, much of the world has improved quality of life. In the last segments we did see some Inka in Firanja, so it does seem that they and their culture have survived. There's certainly a sense of cautious optimism for the future throughout the world. Bao himself finds a sense of community and belonging in Yingzhou. His housing complex is much like a modern-day village. He and his fellow Jati members might not have achieved Nirvana, but they did pretty well for themselves. It kind of reminds me of the ending of Candide. Despite all of the hardships, the Jati made it out alive, and are happily tending to their garden, literally and metaphorically. Well, everyone but the K character. Of course, Bao does find himself with a new student named Kali towards the end of the book. Perhaps she'll come around in time.
I'd say, overall, the world of The Years of Rice and Salt isn't necessarily better or worse than ours, but it is very different. And so, at least for now, the journey of the Jati is at an end. Well, I think at this point it is pretty obvious that I loved this book. I also loved the audiobook adaptation narrated by Bronson Pinchot.
This was truly epic alternate history. It spanned, continents, cultures, centuries, and lifetimes. It shinned a light on cultures and peoples you don't often see in alternate history. It was an amazing journey, and I'm glad I was along for the ride. I'm glad I finally got around to listening to this book. I can't recommend this book enough. Check it out today, you'll be glad that you did.
Link to the original review on my blog, though you won’t find anything you didn’t find here: http://drakoniandgriffalco.blogspot.com/2020/01/book-review-years-of-rice-and-salt-by.html?m=1
submitted by ArthurDrakoni to Fantasy [link] [comments]


2020.08.14 21:17 mr_tyler_durden Notes and Highlights of Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear’s Live Update August 14, 2020

Notes and Highlights of Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear’s Live Update August 14, 2020
Notes by mr_tyler_durden and Daily Update Team
Note: We may need to paraphrase, but the notes are accurate
Watch here:
Headlines
Summarized (Full) Notes
QUESTIONS
(continued in stickied comment)
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2020.08.12 00:55 bhambetty 2020 Best of r/Birmingham

Below are the results of the 2020 Best of Birmingham Guide! I am only listing the top three picks for all categories, for the sake of brevity, and some categories may have fewer than three top picks due to lack of consensus in voting. You can see a list of all responses here.
Thanks to all who voted. If you didn’t get a chance to submit your picks, drop a note in the comments. I plan to do this every year.
Get yer scrolling finger ready!

Food and Drink

Best Fine Dining Restaurant
  1. Highlands Bar & Grill - 45%
  2. Automatic Seafood and Oysters - 11%
  3. (Tie) Café Dupont & Chez Fonfon - 9%
Best Casual Restaurant (overall)
  1. Rojo - 10%
  2. Trattoria Zaza - 9%
  3. (Tie) Back Forty Beer Company, El Barrio, & Paramount - 7%
Best Mexican/Tex-Mex/Latin American Restaurant
  1. El Barrio - 34%
  2. Los Amigos - 11%
  3. Rojo - 8%
Best Tacos
  1. Dos Hermanos - 43%
  2. Taco Morro Loco - 18%
  3. Gordo's - 11%
Best Italian Restaurant
  1. Gianmarco's - 48%
  2. Giuseppe's Café - 21%
  3. Bettola - 8%
Best Pizza
  1. Post Office Pies - 27%
  2. Slice - 20%
  3. (Tie) Davenport’s Pizza Palace & Trattoria Zaza - 8%
Best Chinese Restaurant
  1. Red Pearl - 33%
  2. Mr. Chen's - 24%
  3. New China Town - 11%
Best Japanese Restaurant
  1. Ikko - 18%
  2. Shu Shop - 13%
  3. (Tie) Bamboo on 2nd, Kobe, & Sushi Village - 11%
Best Thai Restaurant
  1. Blue Pacific - 45%
  2. Surin - 25%
  3. Yum Yai - 13%
Best Indian Restaurant
  1. Taj India - 38%
  2. Bay Leaf - 29%
  3. Silver Coin - 22%
Best Asian (other) Restaurant
  1. Bamboo on 2nd - 17%
  2. Phở Quê Hương - 11%
  3. (Tie) Saigon Noodle House, Shu Shop, & Yummefy - 8%
Best Mediterranean/Middle Eastern Restaurant
  1. Makarios - 32%
  2. Falafel Café - 23%
  3. (Tie) Pita Stop & The Purple Onion - 9%
Best American Style Restaurant
  1. Jack Brown's Beer and Burger Joint - 14%
  2. (Tie) Johnny's, Niki's West, & Yo’ Mama's - 9%
  3. Paramount - 6%
Best Ethnic Restaurant Not Categorized Above
  1. Tropicaleo - 29%
  2. Red Sea Ethiopian and Mediterranean - 19%
  3. Miami Fusion Café - 10%
Best Vegetarian/Vegan Options
  1. Tropicaleo - 24%
  2. Golden Temple - 21%
  3. Shu Shop - 7%
Best BBQ Restaurant
  1. Saw's - 62% (Y’all were split on which location is best)
  2. Rodney Scott’s BBQ - 11%
  3. (Tie) Full Moon Bar-B-Que & Rusty's Bar-B-Q - 6%
Best Food Truck
  1. Eugene's Hot Chicken - 28%
  2. Dos Hermanos - 23%
  3. (Tie) Paradise Chow & Shindigs - 7%
Best Wings
  1. Saw's - 24%
  2. Moe's Original BBQ - 17%
  3. Paramount - 14%
Best Hot Dog
  1. Gus's Hot Dogs - 60%
  2. Sneaky Pete’s - 12%
  3. Paramount - 8%
Best Bakery
  1. Birmingham Breadworks - 24%
  2. Continental Bakery - 20%
  3. Edgar's Bakery - 16%
Best Ice Cream
  1. Big Spoon Creamery - 62%
  2. Jeni's Splendid Ice Creams - 21%
  3. Mountain Brook Creamery - 8%
Best Pie (Dessert)
  1. Johnny Ray’s BBQ - 17%
  2. (Tie) Niki's West & The Bright Star - 11%
Best Coffee Shop
  1. Red Cat Coffee House - 25%
  2. Church Street Coffee & Books - 16%
  3. (Tie) Domestique, Filter Coffee Parlor, O'Henry's, & Seeds Coffee Co. - 10%
Best Brunch
  1. Trattoria Zaza - 17%
  2. Big Bad Breakfast - 15%
  3. (Tie) El Barrio & First Watch - 9%
Best Late Night Eats
  1. Al's Deli & Grill - 32%
  2. Marty’s PM - 19%
  3. Shu Shop - 14%
Best Burger
  1. Jack Brown's Beer & Burger Joint - 30%
  2. Chez Fonfon - 18%
  3. Back Forty Beer Company - 12%
Best Pub Grub
  1. Carrigan's Public House - 19%
  2. (Tie) Back Forty Beer Company, Black Market Bar, & Paramount - 11%
  3. Marty's GM - 8%
Best Seafood
  1. Automatic Seafood and Oysters - 51%
  2. The Fish Market - 14%
  3. Ocean - 11%
Best Steak
  1. Perry's Steakhouse & Grille - 26%
  2. (Tie) Bellini's Ristorante & The Bright Star - 9%
Best Hole in the Wall Restaurant
  1. Blue Pacific - 11%
  2. Giuseppe's Café - 10%
  3. Delta Blues Hot Tamales - 7%
Best Caterer
  1. Savoie - 17%
Best Restaurant or Food Not Categorized Above
  1. Eugene's Hot Chicken - 19%
  2. Chez Fonfon - 14%
  3. Niki’s West - 10%
Best Local Dish (Overall)
  1. Saw's Juke Joint Pork & Greens - 33%
Best Brewery
  1. TrimTab Brewing Company - 52%
  2. (Tie) Back Forty Beer Company & Good People Brewing Company - 15%
  3. Cahaba Brewing Company - 7%
Best Cocktail Bar
  1. The Collins Bar - 30%
  2. The Atomic Lounge - 26%
  3. Queen's Park - 20%
Best Pub
  1. Dave's Pub - 36%
  2. Carrigan's Public House - 16%
Best Dive Bar
  1. Marty's - 23%
  2. The Nick - 17%
  3. Upside Down Plaza - 14%
Best Wine Bar
  1. Freddy's Wine Bar - 50%
  2. Golden Age Wine - 22%
Best Sports Bar
  1. (Tie) Buffalo Wild Wings & Paramount - 20%
Best Bar for College Students
  1. Innisfree Irish Pub - 35%
  2. SideBar - 20%
  3. Black Market Bar - 10%
Best Liquor Store
  1. ABC (State-run liquor stores) - 58%
  2. Highland Package - 19%
  3. LeNell’s Beverage Boutique - 15%
Best Local Beer
  1. TrimTab – Any - 21%
  2. TrimTab Paradise Now - 19%
  3. (Tie) Ghost Train – Any, Good People Muchacho, & Good People Snake Handler - 6%
Best Local Signature Cocktail
  1. Sex Panther at The Atomic Lounge - 36%
  2. Anything at Queens Park - 21%

Services

Best Men's Haircut/Barber
  1. Single Barrel Barbershop - 27%
  2. (Tie) Suaze at Birmingham Classic Cuts, Newman at Birmingham Classic Cuts, & Salon U - 13%
Best Women's Haircut/Color
  1. Wheelhouse Salon - 19%
  2. (Tie) Beauty Shock, The Collective, Hairfolk, & Salon U - 10%
Best Tattoo Artist
  1. (Tie) Amber at Sanctum, Shane at Nonstop, & Sean at Nonstop - 13%
Best Gym or Fitness Center
  1. YMCA - 20%
  2. UAB Rec Center - 15%
Best Veterinarian
  1. Avondale Animal Hospital - 24%
  2. Riverview Animal Clinic - 14%
  3. (Tie) Cat Haven & Eastwood Animal Clinic - 10%
Best Realtor
  1. David Spurling - 14%
Best Auto Mechanic
  1. Green Garage - 50%
  2. Element Garage - 15%

Things to Do

Best First Date (restaurant, venue, or activity)
  1. (Tie) Bamboo on 2nd, Barons game, Saturn, & Vulcan - 8%
Best Casual Date
  1. (Tie) Birmingham Barons game & The Garage - 10%
Best Anniversary/Birthday Date
  1. Highlands Bar & Grill - 17%
  2. Bottega Café - 10%
Best Place to Meet Local Singles
  1. Birmingham GO Kickball - 27%
  2. Dating App/Online - 18%
Best Girls' Night Out
  1. Queen's Park - 27%
Best Guys' Night Out
  1. (Tie) Civil Axe Throwing & Topgolf - 13%
Best Thing to Do With a Group of Friends
  1. Brewery Tour - 15%
  2. (Tie) Birmingham Barons game & Pedal tour - 10%
Best Non-Alcoholic/All Ages Activity
  1. Birmingham Barons game - 19%
  2. (Tie) Railroad Park, Red Mountain Park, & Topgolf - 11%
  3. (Tie) Birmingham Botanical Gardens & Ruffner Mountain - 7%
Best Thing to do With Kids
  1. McWane Science Center - 33%
  2. Birmingham Zoo - 13%
  3. (Tie) Hike at a local park & Railroad Park - 8%
Best Place to Make New Friends
  1. (Tie) At a bar & Birmingham GO Kickball - 15%
Best Party (Non-Wedding) Venue
  1. (Tie) Avondale Event Room, Haven, & Iron City - 20%
Best View of the City
  1. Vulcan 58%
  2. The Club - 10%
Best Hiking
  1. Ruffner Mountain - 50%
  2. Red Mountain - 26%
  3. Oak Mountain - 22%
Best Swimming
  1. Oak Mountain Lake - 50%
  2. Cahaba River - 20%
Best Museum
  1. Birmingham Museum of Art - 58%
  2. Birmingham Civil Rights Institute - 25%
  3. McWane Science Center - 8%
Best Park
  1. Railroad Park - 64%
Best Place for Dogs
  1. Red Mountain Park - 50%
  2. George Ward Park - 17%
Best Quiet Study Spot
  1. (Tie) Church Street Coffee and Books & Hoover Public Library - 13%
Best Farmer's Market
  1. The Market at Pepper Place - 81%
  2. Alabama Farmer’s Market - 9%
  3. Birdsong Market - 6%

Things to Know

Birmingham's Best Kept Secret
  1. The Garage - 20%
  2. (Tie) Blue Pacific & Jim Reed Books - 10%
Best Tourist Attraction
  1. Vulcan - 55%
  2. Birmingham Civil Rights Institute - 23%
  3. Sloss Furnaces - 9%
Best Music Venue
  1. (Tie) Iron City & Saturn - 42%
  2. Avondale Brewing Company - 5%
Best Local Band
  1. St. Paul and the Broken Bones - 18%
  2. (Tie) Manic Vision & The Brook and the Bluff - 9%
Best Bookstore
  1. Thank You Books - 55%
  2. Jim Reed Books - 20%
  3. Little Professor Bookshop - 15%
Best Locally Owned Store (Overall)
  1. (Tie) Birmingham Oddities, Dreamers Supply Co., Thank You Books, & Yellowhammer Creative - 10%
Best Place to Buy Local Gifts
  1. Yellowhammer Creative - 32%
  2. Alabama Goods - 21%
  3. (Tie) Ore Mercantile & Pizitz - 11%
Best Neighborhood for Young Adults
  1. Crestwood - 30%
  2. Highland Park - 28%
  3. Avondale) - 10%
Best Neighborhood for Families
  1. Homewood - 38%
  2. (Tie) Forest Park & Mountain Brook - 12%
  3. Crestwood - 9%
Worst Landlord/Leasing Agency (Ya’ll couldn’t come to an agreement on the Best)
  1. H2 - 33%
  2. Highland Historic Properties - 25%
  3. (Tie) Fred Nassar & Southside Apartment Company - 17%
Best Place to Volunteer
  1. Greater Birmingham Humane Society - 40%
  2. (Tie) Alabama Wildlife Center & GoBabyGoBHM - 13%
Best Place to Work
  1. UAB - 64%
Best Elementary/Middle School
  1. (Tie) Bluff Park & Crestline - 29%
Best High School
  1. (Tie) Homewood & Ramsay - 22%
Best Source for Local News
  1. Al.com - 35%
  2. WBHM - 24%
  3. Birmingham - 18% (we did it, reddit?)

Fun Facts

What is the Best Thing About Birmingham?
  1. Food/Beer - 41%
  2. Big city feel, little city charm - 28%
  3. Friendly people - 21%
What is the Worst Thing About Birmingham?
  1. Traffic - 20%
  2. Racism/Segregation - 14%
  3. Politics - 11%
Best Location for a Day Trip or Short Vacation
  1. (Tie) Cheaha, Gulf Coast, Lake Guntersville, Lake Martin, Mentone, & Oak Mountain - 8%
Best Local Instagram Account
  1. @InstagramBham - 38%
  2. @bhamnow - 31%
Best Local Celebrity
  1. Randall Woodfin - 24%
  2. Roy Wood Jr. - 19%
  3. (Tie) Charles Barkley & James Spann - 10%
Worst Local Celebrity
  1. Taylor Hicks - 32%
  2. Alexander Shunarrah - 16%
  3. (Tie) James Spann & Rick and Bubba - 11%
What is Something Birmingham is Best Known For?
  1. Civil Rights - 32%
  2. Food - 27%
  3. Racism - 9%
I Just Saw a Bunch of Police Cars Racing By. What's Going On?
  1. Shooting - 28%
  2. Testing fire trucks and ambulances - 8%
  3. (Tie) Hero Doughnuts just opened a new location & Hoover PD ruining someone's day – 6%
submitted by bhambetty to Birmingham [link] [comments]


2020.08.10 09:07 JuRaGo_ Systemic Racism

Justice system:
https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/black-lives-matter-eliminating-racial-inequity-in-the-criminal-justice-system/
Here's an excellent document on systemic racism within the criminal justice system
A suburb of St. Louis, Missouri, Ferguson had a population of just over 21,000 in 2013. Though African Americans comprised 63% of the city’s driving-age population in that year, they accounted for 86% of drivers stopped by Ferguson police. That amounted to almost one stop for every two black adults in Ferguson, versus just over one stop for every eight white adults.
After making a stop, Ferguson police searched 12% of black drivers in contrast to 7% of white drivers. Despite – or as a result of – the high rate of stops and searches for black drivers, police had a lower “contraband hit rate” when searching black drivers compared to white drivers. They found contraband – primarily drugs and sometimes weapons – on 22% of black drivers who were searched and on 34% of white drivers who were searched. Yet blacks were twice as likely as whites to be arrested during a traffic stop (10% versus 5%).
Prosecutors are more likely to charge people of color with crimes that carry heavier sentences than whites. Federal prosecutors, for example, are twice as likely to charge African Americans with offenses that carry mandatory minimum sentences than otherwise-similar whites. State prosecutors are also more likely to charge black rather than similar white defendants under habitual offender laws.
Judges are more likely to sentence people of color than whites to prison and jail and to give them longer sentences, even after accounting for differences in crime severity and criminal history. In federal cases, the sentencing disparities between noncitizens and citizens are even larger than those between people of color and whites. The race penalty, research from the 1990s revealed, is harshest for certain categories of people and offenses: it particularly affects men and the young, and is more pronounced for less serious offenses. In effect, young black men are perceived as being more dangerous because of their race and socioeconomic characteristics.
Over 60% of people in jail are being detained prior to trial. Pretrial detention has been shown to increase the odds of conviction, and people who are detained awaiting trial are also more likely to accept less favorable plea deals, to be sentenced to prison, and to receive longer sentences. Seventy percent of pretrial releases require money bond, an especially high hurdle for low-income defendants, who are disproportionately people of color. Blacks and Latinos are more likely than whites to be denied bail, to be set a higher money bond, and to be detained because they cannot pay their bond. They are often assessed to be higher safety and flight risks because they are more likely to experience socioeconomic disadvantage and to have criminal records. Implicit bias also contributes to people of color also faring worse than comparable whites in bail determinations.
How much of the racial disparity in the prison population stems from crime rates, and how much is produced by the criminal justice system? In recent decades, a number of leading scholars, including Alfred Blumstein and Michael Tonry, have sought to quantify these effects. Over various time periods, these studies concluded that between 61% and 80% of black overrepresentation in prison is explained by higher rates of arrest (as a proxy for involvement in crime). The remainder might be caused by racial bias, as well as other factors like differing criminal histories.
Police:
https://www.pnas.org/content/115/37/9181
Consistent with anecdotal evidence (11), militarized police units are more often deployed in areas with high concentrations of African Americans, even after adjusting for local crime rates and other community traits.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11524-020-00430-0#author-information
Study done on killings by police
In our study black, non-Hispanic people are roughly twice as likely to be victims of LIH compared with their representation in the general US population[21]. Moreover, black, non-Hispanic victims are disproportionately represented across every class, though not to equal extents. For example, only 16% of class 4 (impaired, suicidal, threatening with knives) LIH victims were black, non-Hispanic. Conversely, class 6 (low threat, likely unarmed), which are LIH characterized by an apparent absence of force used by the victim, is the only class in which the plurality of victims is a non-white race (black, non-Hispanic).This finding comports with prior LIH research that finds that black Americans are not only disproportionately likely to be killed by law enforcement but are disproportionately unlikely to present an objective threat of deadly force (as measured both directly by mention of use of force by victim in incident narratives and by proxy through victim’s armed status) [5].
Traffic stops and searches:
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-020-0858-1
Study on 100 million traffic stops
In both state patrol and municipal police stops, we find that black drivers comprise a smaller proportion of drivers stopped after sunset, suggestive of discrimination in stop decisions.
Applied to our data, the threshold test indicates that black and Hispanic drivers were searched on the basis of less evidence than white drivers, both on the subset of searches carried out by state patrol agencies and on those carried out by municipal police departments.
Using a difference-in-differences strategy, we find that legalization reduced both search rates and misdemeanor rates for drug offences for white, black and Hispanic drivers—though a gap in search thresholds persists.
Across jurisdictions, we consistently found that searches of Hispanic drivers were less successful than those of white drivers. However, searches of white and black drivers had more comparable hit rates.
More specific examples that help corroborate this study
https://www.aclu.org/press-releases/aclu-analysis-dc-stop-and-frisk-data-reveals-ineffective-policing-troubling-racial
https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/opa/press-releases/attachments/2015/03/04/ferguson_police_department_report.pdf
https://www.aclu-il.org/en/publications/racism-rear-view-mirror
Arrests:
http://www.justicepolicy.org/uploads/justicepolicy/documents/vortex.pdf
Whites and African Americans report using and selling drugs at similar rates, but African Americans go to prison for drug offenses at higher rates than whites. Survey research shows that whites and African Americans report illicit drug use and illicit drug sales at similar rates. However, at the local level, African Americans are admitted to prison for drug offenses at much higher rates than whites. In 2002, African Americans were admitted to prison for drug offenses at 10 times the rate of whites in the 198 largest population counties in the country. Ninety seven percent (193 out of 198) of large-population counties have racial disparities in drug admission rates.
African Americans make up more than half (51 percent) of all admissions to prison for drug offenses. Despite the fact that white drug users outnumber black users by a factor of five there were more than twice as many African Americans (62,087) as whites (28,314) admitted to prison for drug offenses from large-population counties in 2002. The rate of admission to prison for drug offenses is more than 10 times higher for African Americans (262.16 per 100,000) than it is for whites (24.85 per 100,000).
Our results indicate that the proportional size of the African American population in a community has a clear relationship with the rate of drug admissions. The drug imprisonment rate in the quartile of counties in which African Americans make up the largest percentage of the population (93.6 per 100,000) has nearly twice the drug imprisonment rate as the quartile of counties with the smallest percentage of African Americans (49.6 per 100,000). A closer examination of the relationship between racial distributions and drug admission rates for the 10 counties that have the highest percentage of African Americans and the 10 that have the lowest reveals a similar pattern. The overall drug admission rate is six times higher for counties with high percentages of African Americans, relative to those with the lowest percentage. In counties with higher percentages of African Americans, whites are admitted for drug offenses at four times the rate of counties with lower percentages of African Americans. African Americans are admitted at more than twice the rate in counties with higher percentages of African Americans.
The results of this study indicate that the severely disproportionate impact of drug imprisonment on African Americans is related directly to the level of African American representation in local counties, and therefore to the persistent ways in which our local communities are stratified by race. This relationship between African American representation and drug imprisonment persists even after controlling for region, crime, and important economic and labor market indicators in our multiple variable analysis. Other research has indicated that the relationship between the size of the African American population and punitive criminal justice outcomes is continuing to grow over time.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4533860
Disparity between sentencing for crack and powder cocaine despite the two being essentially the same drugs chemically speaking
The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 was the first federal criminal law to differentiate crack from other forms of cocaine, establishing a 100:1 weight ratio as the threshold for eliciting the required five-year “mandatory minimum” penalty upon conviction of possession (USSC, 2011, 2014a; Wallace, 2014). Specifically, the penalty for possessing 500g of powder cocaine was comparable to possessing only 5g of crack (Kleiman et al., 2011). The Fair Sentencing Act (2010) reduced sentencing disparities to 18:1, but sentencing disparities remain and the law is not retroactive, thus, those arrested prior to enactment remain in prison. The Smarter Sentencing Act (2014) was recently proposed to create less costly minimum terms for nonviolent drug offenders and would allow for the 8,800 federal prisoners (87% of whom are black) imprisoned for crack offenses to be resentenced in accordance with the Fair Sentencing Act.
In 2003, African Americans accounted for over 80% of those sentenced for crack offenses even though whites and Hispanics accounted for over 66% of crack users (Vagins and McCurdry, 2006). It has been argued by advocates and members of Congress that federal prosecution and sentencing should be equalized in order to end disparities embedded in the law (Scott, 2013; Vagins and McCurdy, 2006).
Peremptory challenges:
https://eji.org/reports/illegal-racial-discrimination-in-jury-selection/
Prosecutors have struck African Americans from jury service because they appeared to have “low intelligence,” wore eyeglasses, walked in a certain way, dyed their hair, and countless other reasons that the courts have rubber-stamped as “race-neutral.” Some district attorney’s offices explicitly train prosecutors to exclude racial minorities from jury service and teach them how to mask racial bias to avoid a finding that anti-discrimination laws have been violated.
From 2005 to 2009, in cases where the death penalty has been imposed, prosecutors in Houston County, Alabama, have used peremptory strikes to remove 80% of the African Americans qualified for jury service. As a result, half of these juries were all-white and the remainder had only a single black member, despite the fact that Houston County is 27% African-American.
In 2003, the Louisiana Crisis Assistance Center found that prosecutors in Jefferson Parish felony cases strike African-American prospective jurors at more than three times the rate that they strike white prospective jurors. Louisiana allows convictions in many cases even if only 10 of 12 jurors believe the defendant is guilty. The high rate of exclusion means that in 80% of criminal trials, there is no effective black representation on the jury because only the votes of white jurors are necessary to convict, even though Jefferson Parish is 23% black. In the years before and after Batson, Georgia prosecutors in the Chattahoochee Judicial Circuit used 83% of their peremptory strikes against African Americans, who make up 34% of the circuit’s population.
It is impossible for African Americans to challenge underrepresentation in 75% of counties in the United States.** For Latinos and Asian Americans, such challenges are impossible in more than 90% of counties, and for other people of color this constitutional protection is practically non-existent.
https://digitalcommons.law.msu.edu/facpubs/331/
Disparities were even greater in cases involving black defendants. In cases with non-black defendants, the average strike rate was 51.4% against black venire members and 26.8% against all other venire members. In cases with black defendants, the average strike rate was 60.0% against black venire members and 23.1% against other venire members.
Even after controlling for other factors potentially relevant to jury selection, a black venire member had 2.48 times the odds of being struck by the state as did a venire member of another race. In other words, while many factors one might expect to bear on the likelihood of being struck did matter, none–either alone or in combination—accounts for the disproportionately high strike rates against qualified black venire members.
A venire member’s race remained a powerful predictor of prosecutorial strike decisions: an eligible black venire member had more than two-and-a-half times the odds of being struck by the state than a venire member of another race, all else being equal. As in the statewide model, factors such as having previously been accused of a crime or expressing reservations about the death penalty were strong predictors of being struck by the state, but none could account for the effect of race.
In all but one instance, the effect of race was statistically significant at the level of p < .001.46 Thus, for each of these analyses, the chances that we would see a disparity of that magnitude in a race-neutral jury selection system is less than one in one thousand.
Sentencing:
https://www.ussc.gov/research/research-reports/demographic-differences-sentencing
Black male offenders continued to receive longer sentences than similarly situated White male offenders. Black male offenders received sentences on average 19.1 percent longer than similarly situated White male offenders during the Post-Report period (fiscal years 2012-2016), as they had for the prior four periods studied.
Black male offenders were 21.2 percent less likely than White male offenders to receive a non-government sponsored downward departure or variance during the Post-Report period. Furthermore, when Black male offenders did receive a non-government sponsored departure or variance, they received sentences 16.8 percent longer than White male offenders who received a non-government sponsored departure or variance. In contrast, there was a 7.9 percent difference in sentence length between Black male and White male offenders who received sentences within the applicable sentencing guidelines range, and there was no statistically significant difference in sentence length between Black male and White male offenders who received a substantial assistance departure.
Black male offenders received sentences on average 20.4 percent longer than similarly situated White male offenders, accounting for violence in an offender’s past in fiscal year 2016, the only year for which such data is available.
https://sci-hub.tw/https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jels.12077
The race-only model estimates that, on average, blacks receive prison sentences that are 0.0416, or 1.0425 times those given to whites when controlling for legally-relevant factors such as criminal history and crime type; this relationship is significant even after controls for socioeconomic status are added in Model 3. However, the race and skin color model also shows us that this model hides important intraracial differences in sentence length: although dark-skinned blacks receive sentences that are about (e0.047264-1), or 4.83 percent higher than those of whites, and medium-skinned blacks receive sentences that are (e0.04689-1) or 4.80 percent higher than those of whites, lighter-skinned blacks receive sentences that are not statistically significantly different from those of whites. Taking socioeconomic status into account reduces but does not eliminate this disparity between whites and dark- and medium-skinned blacks; dark- and medium-skinned blacks still receive sentences that are 5.4 percent and 5.6 percent longer, respectively, than those of whites. While these numbers seem quite small, these small gaps translate into differences of months or even years. For instance, for crimes for which the average sentence for whites is two years, the average dark- or medium-skinned black offender could expect to receive just over one month more prison time. For crimes that carry a 10-year sentence, the difference is almost six months. To present these outcomes graphically, the sentence lengths in days were simulated for hypothetical convicted offenders with different races and skin colors. Calculating the effects of race and skin color on the expected sentence length for different crimes reveals that these factors can have a large effect on sentence length even after controls are added. As shown in Figure 3, black men with dark and medium complexions receive sentences two to three months longer than whites and light-skinned blacks for first convictions for nonviolent crimes like burglary, cocaine sales, or cocaine possession. The most dramatic effects, however, are reserved for murder sentences. As Figure 4 indicates, medium- and dark-skinned blacks convicted for murder as their first offense receive sentences more than one year longer, on average, than those of light-skinned blacks and whites.
This study challenges previous research that finds that the racial disparity in criminal sentencing disappears after controlling for criminal history, crime type, and other legal factors (for a list of such studies, see McDougall et al. 2003). Even when taking these factors into account here, black first-time offenders still receive longer sentences than their white counterparts even when controlling for socioeconomic status and other factors that might influence sentencing
Bail:
https://academic.oup.com/qje/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/qje/qjy012/5025665?redirectedFrom=fulltext
On average, black defendants are 3.6 percentage points more likely to be assigned monetary bail compared to white defendants and receive bail amounts that are $7,281 greater than white defendants (including zeros). Conversely, black defendants are 2.0 percentage points and 1.6 percentage points less likely to be released on their own recognizance or to be assigned non-monetary conditions compared to white defendants, respectively. As a result, black defendants are 2.4 percentage points more likely to be detained pre-trial compared to white defendants
Taken together, these IV estimates imply that marginally released white defendants are 22.2 percentage points more likely to be rearrested prior to disposition than marginally released black defendants (column (3)), consistent with racial bias against blacks (p = .027). Importantly, we can reject the null hypothesis of no racial bias given assuming the maximum infra-marginality bias in our IV estimator of 1.1 percentage points. In Panel B, we find suggestive evidence of racial bias against black defendants across all crime types, although the point estimates are too imprecise to make definitive conclusions. For example, we find that marginally released whites are about 8.0 percentage points more likely to be rearrested for a violent crime prior to disposition than marginally released blacks (p = .173). Marginally released white defendants are also 4.7 percentage points more likely to be rearrested for a drug crime prior to case disposition than marginally released black defendants (p = .430), and 16.3 percentage points more likely to be rearrested for a property crime (p = .025). These results suggest that judges are likely racially biased against black defendants even if they are most concerned about minimizing specific types of new crime, such as violent crimes.
First we find that both white and black bail judges are racially biased against black defendants, a finding that is inconsistent with most models of racial animus. Second, we find that black defendants are sufficiently overrepresented in the right tail of the predicted risk distribution to rationalize observed racial disparities in release rates under a theory of stereotyping. Finally, racial bias is significantly higher among both part-time and inexperienced judges, and descriptive evidence suggests that experienced judges can better predict misconduct risk for all defendants. Taken together, these results are most consistent with a model of bail judges relying on inaccurate stereotypes that exaggerate the relative danger of releasing black defendants versus white defendants at the margin.
Death penalty:
https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/lsrp_papers/41/
Race matters in capital punishment. Even when statistically controlling for a wide variety of nonracial factors that may influence sentencing, numerous researchers have found that murderers of White victims are more likely than murderers of Black victims to be sentenced to death (Baldus, Pulaski, & Woodworth, 1983; Baldus, Woodworth, & Pulaski, 1985, 1990, 1994; Baldus, Woodworth, Zuckerman, Weiner, & Broffitt, 1998; Bowers, Pierce, & McDevitt, 1984; Gross & Mauro, 1989; Radelet, 1981; U.S. General Accounting Office, GAO, 1990). The U.S. GAO (1990) has described this race-of-victim effect as ‘‘remarkably consistent across data sets, states, data collection methods, and analytic techniques’’ (p. 5). In one of the most comprehensive studies to date, the race of the victim and the race of the defendant each were found to influence sentencing (Baldus et al., 1998). Not only did killing a White person rather than a Black person increase the likelihood of being sentenced to death, but also Black defendants were more likely than White defendants to be sentenced to death.
The results confirmed that, above and beyond the effects of the covariates, defendants whose appearance was perceived as more stereotypically Black were more likely to receive a death sentence than defendants whose appearance was perceived as less stereotypically Black. In fact, 24.4% of those Black defendants who fell in the lower half of the stereotypicality distribution received a death sentence, whereas 57.5% of those Black defendants who fell in the upper half received a death sentence
Employing the same analyses as we did for the cases with White victims, we found that the perceived stereotypicality of Black defendants convicted of murdering Black victims did not predict death sentencing. Black defendants who fell in the upper and lower halves of the stereotypically distribution were sentenced to death at almost identical rates (45% vs. 46.6%, respectively). Thus, defendants who were perceived to be more stereotypically Black were more likely to be sentenced to death only when their victims were White.
Housing discrimination:
https://www.suffolk.edu/news-features/news/2020/06/27/01/03/qualified-renters-need-not-apply#
There was evidence of discrimination based on the prospective renter’s race in 71% of the tests. The data suggests that voucher discrimination is not a proxy for race discrimination. Results indicate that White market-rate testers— meaning White testers not using vouchers—were able to arrange to view apartments 80% of the time. Similarly situated Black market-rate testers seeking to view the same apartments were only able to visit the property 48% of the time. Testers who had vouchers, regardless of their race, were prevented from viewing apartments at very high rates.
In addition, housing providers showed White market-rate testers twice as many apartment units as Black market-rate testers, and provided them with better service as measured by a number of different variables. The results also showed that testers who were offered a site visit by the housing provider received differential treatment at the visit based on race and voucher status.
Hiring discrimination:
https://www.nber.org/digest/sep03/w9873.html
Applicants with White names need to send about 10 resumes to get one callback whereas applicants with African-American names need to send about 15 resumes. This 50-percent gap in callback is statistically significant. A White name yields as many more callbacks as an additional eight years of experience on a resume. Since applicants’ names are randomly assigned, this gap can only be attributed to the name manipulation.
The experiment also reveals several other aspects of the differential treatment by race. First, since we randomly assign applicants’ postal addresses to the resumes, we can study the effect of neighborhood of residence on the likelihood of callback. We find that living in a wealthier (or more educated or Whiter) neighborhood increases callback rates. But, interestingly, African-Americans are not helped more than Whites by living in a “better” neighborhood. Second, the racial gap we measure in different industries does not appear correlated to Census-based measures of the racial gap in wages. The same is true for the racial gap we measure in different occupations. In fact, we find that the racial gaps in callback are statistically indistinguishable across all the occupation and industry categories covered in the experiment. Federal contractors, who are thought to be more severely constrained by affirmative action laws, do not treat the African-American resumes more preferentially; neither do larger employers or employers who explicitly state that they are “Equal Opportunity Employers.” In Chicago, we find a slightly smaller racial gap when employers are located in more African American neighborhoods.
This paper suggests that African-Americans face differential treatment when searching for jobs and this may still be a factor in why they do poorly in the labor market. Job applicants with African-American names get far fewer callbacks for each resume they send out. Equally importantly, applicants with African-American names find it hard to overcome this hurdle in callbacks by improving their observable skills or credentials.
submitted by JuRaGo_ to leftfacts [link] [comments]


2020.08.02 22:47 llaverna Weekly Round-Up: July 27th - August 2nd

Weekly Round-Up: July 27th - August 2nd
/bangtan Weekly Round-Up

Previous thread: July 20th - July 26th

This round-up is for everything that happened in the /bangtan realm within the past week, compiled for your convenience! If you have feedback, please leave a comment or send me a PM.
The latest weekly round-up is linked on the sidebar of the subreddit. The link to the archive of past round-up posts can always be found in the wiki index.

New Releases

200728 10000 Hours (cover) by JK of BTS Thread

News & Information

200727 BTS to release a single on the 21st of August; the song will be sung in English
200728 BTS’ LY albums’ packaging has won the 2020 Red Dot Award in the Brand & Communication Design category.
200728 [Unaffiliated, see thread] Yonhap News: Bimonthly magazine on K-pop band BTS launched in Italy
200728 BTS Will Be Launching An Outdoor Reality Show With JTBC, The Production Be Would Be Under Bighit And The Broadcast Will Be By JTBC
200728 'In the SOOP BTS ver.' Exclusive VOD Available for Pre-Order Purchase Exclusively on BTS Weverse starting August 4 @ 6 PM KST
200728 "A Drive In Concert" : BTS Concert 'Love Yourself:Seoul Screening On August 16th At 7.30pm Kst At Anyangcheon A Footbal Stadium
200730 Bangbangcon The Live VOD is up
200730 [NOTICE] BTS GLOBAL OFFICIAL FANCLUB ARMY MEMBERSHIP Renewal and New Signup Information
200730 BigHit's preliminary screening for its IPO expected to take additional time
200730 You can now connect your ARMY Bomb to Black Swan MV
200730 BTS Have Been Nominated in 3 Categories for VMA 2020 (Best Pop, Best Kpop, Best Choreography)
200731 Special movie “BTS Music Journey” is now available in South Korea and the United States
200801 BTS to guest on I-LAND on August 14th

Appearances

Date Video Thread
200727 BTS perform "Your eyes tell" on Fuji TV's 'Love Music'
200729 TOKOPEDIA x BTS: Boy With Luv (Waktu Indonesia Belanja TV Show) / Mirrors Thread
200729 TOKOPEDIA x BTS: ON #BTSdiTOKOPEDIAWIB / Mirrors Thread
200729 BTS @ Tokopedia WIB TV SHOW: Interview Cut / Mirrors Thread

Official Media

Type Date Title Thread
Bomb 200728 [BANGTAN BOMB] I Prayed That I Could Get to My Part Thread
Episode 200801 [EPISODE] BTS (방탄소년단) @ Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve 2020 Thread
Love Myself 200730 Love Myself: Do you remember our promise last year, to "love those around us as we love ourselves"? (Feat montage clip of bangbangcon with Friends as BGM) Thread
Run BTS! 200728 Run BTS! 2020 - EP.110 Thread
Run BTS! 200730 [Behind] Run! BTS - EP.110 Thread
Smeraldo 200726 Smeraldo Blog Update 6 Thread
Smeraldo 200731 Smeraldo Blog Update 7 Thread
Teaser 200728 Countdown to 200821 Thread
Teaser 200728 [In the SOOP BTS ver.] Official Teaser 1 Thread
V Live 200727 Jin, Jimin, Jungkook Vlive: Kkul FM Thread
Other 200727 Learn! KOREAN with BTS [EP.21] Dialects Thread

HYYH The Notes

Date Tweet Thread
200727 Taehyung 10 July 2022 Thread
200728 Jimin 14 June 2022 Thread
200729 Jungkook 22 July 2022 Thread
200730 The Notes #1 Thread
200731 The Notes #1-A Thread
200801 The Notes #2-A Thread
200801 The Notes #3 Thread
200802 The Notes #3-A Thread
200802 The Notes #4 Thread

Official SNS

Date SNS Title Thread
200727 Twitter Bangtan Thread
200727 Twitter Jimin Thread
200728 Twitter Jungkook Thread
200728 Weverse V (Yeontan) Thread
200728 Twitter Jungkook Thread

CF & Partnerships

200727 BTS x Tmoney Lenticular Cards Available at CU Convenience Stores in Korea on August 6th
200727 The new August flavor ice cream for BTS x Baskin Robbins is purple! The name of the flavor will be ‘O’라’O’라 (‘O’ ra ‘O’ ra). (Guess what O is)
200728 Hyundai: Guess who came to check out #HyundaiMotorstudioGoyang!
200728 Baskin-Robbins New BTS Flavour "Bora Bora" mascarpone ice cream with blueberries
200730 Baskin Robbins will release 3 BTS ads on August 1, 3, 5
200731 [Baskin Robbins X BTS] 메이킹필름 런칭광고편 (Making Film 1)
200731 [Baskin Robbins x BTS] Bangtan is BaRo 💜 RM, SUGA

Articles

BTS Interview

Date Publisher Article Thread
200731 Vogue Japan 世界が恋するBTSが見つめる未来〜独占インタビュー Thread

Other

Date Publisher Article Thread
200727 Forbes BTS Confirm New English Single For August Ahead Of Upcoming Album Thread
200727 Insider BTS is one of the biggest music sensations in history. Here's a look back on their meteoric rise to stardom Thread
200728 K-media Producer of NPR Tiny Desk mentions BTS in interview Thread
200730 Forbes Can BTS Top The Billboard Hot 100 With Their New English Single? Thread
200730 Visit Seoul Baepsae credited for popularity of Seoul Tourism Org's smart digital mascot Thread
200731 K-media In an interview with Hyundai it was said V was fascinated by the design of Hyundai's EV Concept Car 'Prophecy' and later bought the Genesis GV80 model Thread

Other media

Type Date Title Thread
Cover 200730 Eric Nam covers Euphoria at his Online Album Showcase Thread
Cover 200731 J.Fla - Spring Day (봄날) Thread
SNS 200729 the way airbnb exists in the BTS Cinematic Universe now... Thread
SNS 200729 American singer Khalid posted on his IG Story that he is listening to “Serendipity” in his car Thread
SNS 200729 Luna Maya Thread
SNS 200729 Columbia promotional email to Top 40 Radio for BTS New Single Thread
SNS 200731 Columbia Records: Have you joined the BTS Party yet? Be sure to connect with Spotify so you can get access to the new BTS song on August 21st! Thread
SNS 200730 GIPHY Pop #InternationalFriendshipDay Thread
SNS 200730 MAX: BLUEBERRY EYES (FEAT SUGA)... T- SHIRT DESIGN CONTEST... Thread
Other 200730 Ahsan Qayyum, A Guinness World Record Holder For His Outstanding Miniature Art Has Just Crafted BTS’ Logo On Top Of A Pencil Thread
Other 200802 BTS Brand Identity (1:32 - 1:40) and HuskyFox's LOVE YOURSELF Identity System (2:43) was shown in Plus X 10th Anniversary Portfolio. Thread

Milestones

Type Date Thread
Charts/Sales 200727 RM’s 'mono' Is Now the First Album by an Asian Act to Reach #1 on iTunes in 110 Countries Worldwide (It now ties with Camila Cabello “CAMILA” album)
Charts/Sales 200728 BTS's "Love Yourself: Answer" joins "Love Yourself: Tear" as the only albums by an Asian act in history to chart 100+ Weeks on 'Billboard World Albums Chart'
Charts/Sales 200731 BTS' Japanese album "MAP OF THE SOUL:7 ~THE JOURNEY~" becomes the first ever album by a Korean male act in history to surpass 600,000 sales on Oricon
Charts/Sales 200801 V's 'Sweet Night' & BTS's 'Your Eyes Tell' are now the Only songs by an Asian Acts in history to topped all the Major Music Markets in the world on iTunes
Streams 200729 BTS’s ‘Lights’ Has Been Certified Silver by RIAJ for Surpassing 30 MILLION Streams in Japan (4th song to achieve this)
Streams 200729 chart data: RM's "mono." has now surpassed 200 million streams on Spotify
Streams 200730 BTS has earned over 1 BILLION on-demand streams in the US this year

TinyTAN

200730 Hi we are~ TinyTAN!! Thread
200802 TinyTAN Character Intro Compilation
200802 TinyTAN RM - Unbreakable Cuteness Thread
200802 TinyTAN Jin - Worldwide Cutie Thread
200802 TinyTAN SUGA - Sweetie with Swagger Thread
200802 TinyTAN j-hope - Little Hope Right Here Thread
200802 TinyTAN Jimin - Lovely Little Angel Thread
200802 TinyTAN V - Precious Baby Bear Thread
200802 TinyTAN Jungkook - Adorable Golden Baby Thread
200802 TinyTAN: Still dreaming, right? Thread

BT21

200728 "Ooooh, this looks FUN!" 😃 Don't miss how mischievous SHOOKY causes a ruckus to BT21! Thread
200728 Shh. Time for BABY nap 😌 Thread
200729 Q&A Time - Stories Behind BT21 UNIVERSE Thread
200730 BT21 UNIVERSE 3 ANIMATION EP.08 - BT21 BECOME BABY Thread

BT21 merchandise news

200731 LINE FRIENDS COLLECTION BT21 BABY Lighting Doll

Misc

200728 Unofficial BTS In The SOOP Bingo!
200730 "Autumn In Front of the Post Office" by Jin - mini Korean lesson

Subreddit

Rolling /bangtan Awards 2020 nomination form

Top Discussion Posts

  1. [+533] Releasing songs/album in english should not be considered selling out.
  2. [+177] Older Army, how do you deal with the idea that fans are all young?
  3. [+177] What have you learned about Korean culture and the language from listening and watching BTS?
  4. [+116] Out-of-the-box Run BTS ideas!
  5. [+85] Differences in Rap Lines Lyricism

Weekly threads

Fanart

Here are past week's top 5 fanart posts from our sister subreddit, /heungtan!
Submitter Thread
mylifeasmickey I finally finished my labor of love for JK. Golden Boy cross stitch! Details below
sogicereal Namjoon Portrait ٩(。•́‿•̀。)۶
Jennifer-Lorelei My BT21 Homemade Cupcakes, I made these Abit a go but i just had to post them here, I love BTS so much these were a joy to make. <3
fath0m_ Namjoon, quickly sketched
JeonLisaaaa 💜 Jeon Jeongguk 💜
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